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Mangrove Society Of India 1
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Mangrove Ecosystem

We are leading Service Provider for the Mangrove Ecosystem which also includes Uses Of Mangroves & Ardea alba - Great Egret since 2014

Uses Of Mangroves

The Mangrove in India is home to numerous species of flora and fauna and the presence of Mangrove ecosystems on coastline can save lives and property during natural hazardslike cyclones, storm surges and erosion, as well. They are also valuable economically. The Mangrove in India is breeding, feeding and providing nursery grounds for many estuarine and marine organisms. The ecosystem has quite a large potential for natural products that can be used for medicinal purposes and also for salt production, apiculture, fuel and fodder, etc. The Sundarbans comprise the principal portion of Mangrove in India. The Sundarban mangroves occupy a huge area followed by the Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat. Compared to the Sunderbans, the rest of the mangrove ecosystems are comparatively smaller. The Mangrove in India is home to a large numberof over 1600 plant and 3700 animal species.

For centuries, mangrove forests have sustained the traditional cultures of coastal populations as a source of fish and game, firewood, fodder for livestock, medicines and tannins. Moreover, they have supported the development of industries that use them as a source of raw materials for paper, chipboard, charcoal and construction. In recent decades, though, the global mangrove estate has diminished; mangrove forests are being lost at an estimated 100,000 hectares a year. Some of this loss takes place to provide space for commercial-scale shrimp ponds, agriculture and saltpans and some for the development of new ports, urban centres and tourist resorts.

The clearing and degradation of mangroves can have wide-ranging consequences. Fish stocks become depleted; the livelihoods of many coastal residents, once dependent on healthy coastal ecosystems, are threatened. Environmental problems such as soil salinization, erosion and land subsidence arise, seagrass beds and coral reefs are destroyed and biodiversity is lost.

Traditional exploitation In villages all round the world, people are dependent on mangroves for timber and firewood, to build dwellings (often on stilts) and lattice, furniture, studs for houses, rafters, joists, telegraph poles, fences, bridges, railway sleepers, poles for fish traps, paddles and rafts, canoes and boats (Walsh, 1977; FAO, 1982, 1985; Knox and Miyabara, 1984; Field, 1995; Rasolofo, 1997).In Sri Lanka, straight stems of Ceriops tagal, Rhiziphora and Bruguiera species are used to construct the frames of the thatched roofs and window frames. The wattle of the mud walls of houses is made with timber from the above species as well as Sonneratia and the timber from coconut trees is widely used as rafters. (Amarasinghe, 1988).

In Sunderbans , timber yields, principally of Heritiera fomes and Excoecaria agallocha (gewa), have exceeded 300,000 cubic meters annually representing a major source of wood in a country poorly endowed with other forest types. About 300,000 people are directly dependent on the mangroves for wood, thatch, honey and fish. Avecennia spp. are often used to construct dugout canoes. Boat builders in the mangroves knew when and where to fetch the right timber (Walsh, 1977; Vannucci, 1989). They preferred Excoecaria and Ceriops spp. to construct the knees, Rhizophora spp. for the masts, Avicennia spp. for the keel, Barringtonia and Xylocarpus spp. for the planks.

Ardea Alba - Great Egret

Ardea alba - Great Egret

Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Aves
Order : Ciconiiformes
Genus : Ardea
Species : alba
Author : Linnaeus, 1758
Description
A large white heron, the Great Egret is found across much of the world, from southern Canada southward to Argentina, and in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. It's the largest egret in the Old World, and thus has garnered the name Great White Egret. In the New World, however, the white form of the Great Blue Heron is larger. In the United States, the Great Egret used to be called the American Egret but that was hardly appropriate, since its range extends beyond the Americas and indeed farther than other herons.
Nests in colonies with other species, in shrubs and trees over water, and on islands. Feeds in variety of wetlands, including marshes, swamps, streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, tide flats, canals, and flooded fields.

Alcedo Meninting

Alcedo meninting

Kingdom :     Animalia
Phylum :     Chordata
Class :     Aves
Order :     Coraciiformes
Genus :     Alcedo
Species :     meninting
Author :     Horsfield, 1821
Description
Size: 16 cm.
Voice: Piping chee, higher and shorter than Common Kingfisher.
Habits: Similar to that of Common Kingfisher, but shy.
Sexes alike. Differs from Small Blue Kingfisher by blue ear-coverts, darker and more intense cobalt-blue upperparts and richer rufous underparts.

Butorides Virescens - Green Heron

Butorides Virescens - Green Heron

Kingdom :     Animalia
Phylum :     Chordata
Class :     Aves
Order :     Ciconiiformes
Genus :     Butorides
Species :     striatus
Author :     Linnaeus, 1758
Description
Size: 40-48 cm; Length 40-41 cm.
Color: general colour blackish green; grey below; throat white; buff to chestnut line down foreneck; erectile feathers on crown. Immature dark brown spotted white above, buff and dark brown streaking below. Bare parts: iris yellow, deep orange when breeding; lores green to blue, yellow when breeding; bill black above, yellow green below with black tip, entirely black when breeding; feet and legs grey brown in front, yellow behind, yellow to reddish orange when breeding.
Voice: Usually silent, when flushed utters alarm note k'yow or k'yek.
Habits: Solitary, frequents the same area, crepuscular, usually remains in thick vegetation, occasionally active during day, often perches on overhanging branches. Apparently breeds twice a year from March to September.
Adult: Sexes alike, chiefly a black, grey and dark metallic green heron with black bill, glossy greenish-black forehead, crown and longish occipital crest, white chin, cheeks and central throat, grey head and neck. Upper parts slaty-grey glossed with bronze-green, lower parts ashy-grey and under tail-coverts white with blackish edges, legs dull green or plumbeous green. Juvenile: Brownish above, white with white spots.
Nesting: Season- overall March to August, varying locally. Nest- a rough stick platform up in a small tree on the edge of water, or in a mangrove swamp. Built singly, not in colonies. Eggs-3 to 5, very like the Paddy Bird's, pale greenish blue.

Acanthus Ilicifolius

Acanthus ilicifolius

axonomy
Kingdom :     Plantae
Phylum :     Tracheophyta
Class :     Magnoliopsida
Order :     Scrophulariales
Genus :     Acanthus
Species :     ilicifolius
Author :     L.
Description
Viny shrub or tall herb, upto 1.5 m high, scarcely woody, bushy, with very dense growth
Shallow tap roots, but occasionally stilt roots are conspicuous
Leaf simple, opposite, decussate, cauline, exstipulate, petiole short, flattened, glabrous, pulvinous to sheathing base
Lamina oblong, elliptic-oblong, spiny margin and wavy, apex acute, basal angled, dorsiventral, green
Inflorescence raceme, spike, upto 16 cm long, peduncled
Flowers bracteate, curved, ovoid, entire, acute, basal cup-shaped, glabrous, greenish, two bracteoles partly covered by bracts
Flower bisexual, typically zygomorphic, complete, erect, sessile, hypogynous,
Sepals 5, polysepalous, twisted, borad, ovate, margin folded, acute, basal curved, coriaceous, greenish , persistent
Petals 1, large, showy, violet, ovate, entire, obtuse, coriaceous, slightly fleshy, slightly curved, margin outerly folded, deciduous
Stamens 4, free filament, erect
Carpels 2, syncarpous, ovary dumbel-shaped, glabrous, terete, ovary superior, two chambered, two ovules in each chamber, axile placentation
Styel 1, terminal, persistent, terete, glabrous
Stigma two bifid.
Fruit 1 cm green and 2.5 - 2.0 cm long, kidney shaped 4 seed drupe, Seed 0.5 - 1.0 cm long
Germination of seed hypgeal
Economic Importance : Useful in asthma, decoction used in dyspepsia. Leaves used as fomentation in rheumatism and neuralgia and also used in snake bite.

Aegiceras Corniculatum

Aegiceras Corniculatum

Taxonomy

Kingdom     :     Plantae
Phylum       :     Tracheophyta
Class         :     Magnoliopsida
Order        :     Scrophulariales
Genus       :     Acanthus
Species     :     ilicifolius
Author     :     L.
Description
Viny shrub or tall herb, upto 1.5 m high, scarcely woody, bushy, with very dense growth
Shallow tap roots, but occasionally stilt roots are conspicuous
Leaf simple, opposite, decussate, cauline, exstipulate, petiole short, flattened, glabrous, pulvinous to sheathing base
Lamina oblong, elliptic-oblong, spiny margin and wavy, apex acute, basal angled, dorsiventral, green
Inflorescence raceme, spike, upto 16 cm long, peduncled
Flowers bracteate, curved, ovoid, entire, acute, basal cup-shaped, glabrous, greenish, two bracteoles partly covered by bracts
Flower bisexual, typically zygomorphic, complete, erect, sessile, hypogynous,
Sepals 5, polysepalous, twisted, borad, ovate, margin folded, acute, basal curved, coriaceous, greenish , persistent
Petals 1, large, showy, violet, ovate, entire, obtuse, coriaceous, slightly fleshy, slightly curved, margin outerly folded, deciduous
Stamens 4, free filament, erect
Carpels 2, syncarpous, ovary dumbel-shaped, glabrous, terete, ovary superior, two chambered, two ovules in each chamber, axile placentation
Styel 1, terminal, persistent, terete, glabrous
Stigma two bifid.

Fruit 1 cm green and 2.5 - 2.0 cm long, kidney shaped 4 seed drupe, Seed 0.5 - 1.0 cm long
Germination of seed hypgeal
Economic Importance : Useful in asthma, decoction used in dyspepsia. Leaves used as fomentation in rheumatism and neuralgia and also used in snake bite.

Aegiceras Corniculatum

Aegiceras Corniculatum

Kingdom    :     Plantae
Phylum      :     Tracheophyta
Class         :     Magnoliopsida
Order        :     Scrophulariales
Genus       :     Acanthus
Species     :     ilicifolius
Author      :     L.

Description

Viny shrub or tall herb, upto 1.5 m high, scarcely woody, bushy, with very dense growth
Shallow tap roots, but occasionally stilt roots are conspicuous
Leaf simple, opposite, decussate, cauline, exstipulate, petiole short, flattened, glabrous, pulvinous to sheathing base
Lamina oblong, elliptic-oblong, spiny margin and wavy, apex acute, basal angled, dorsiventral, green
Inflorescence raceme, spike, upto 16 cm long, peduncled
Flowers bracteate, curved, ovoid, entire, acute, basal cup-shaped, glabrous, greenish, two bracteoles partly covered by bracts
Flower bisexual, typically zygomorphic, complete, erect, sessile, hypogynous,
Sepals 5, polysepalous, twisted, borad, ovate, margin folded, acute, basal curved, coriaceous, greenish ,

persistent

Petals 1, large, showy, violet, ovate, entire, obtuse, coriaceous, slightly fleshy, slightly curved, margin outerly folded, deciduous
Stamens 4, free filament, erect
Carpels 2, syncarpous, ovary dumbel-shaped, glabrous, terete, ovary superior, two chambered, two ovules in each chamber, axile placentation
Styel 1, terminal, persistent, terete, glabrous
Stigma two bifid.
Fruit 1 cm green and 2.5 - 2.0 cm long, kidney shaped 4 seed drupe, Seed 0.5 - 1.0 cm long
Germination of seed hypgeal
Economic Importance : Useful in asthma, decoction used in dyspepsia. Leaves used as fomentation in rheumatism and neuralgia and also used in snake bite.

Avicenia Marina

Avicenia marina

Taxonomy
Kingdom :     Plantae
Phylum :     Magnoliophyta
Class :     Equisetopsida
Order :     Lamiales
Genus :     Avicennia
Species :     marina
Author :     (Forssk.) Vierh.
Description
Color: Flowers are yellow, in terminal condensed cymes.
Shrubs or small trees, up to 4 m tall. Leaf-blades ovate or lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong or elliptic, usually abruptly acute at the apex, glabrous. Flowers sessile in terminal cymes; calyx deeply lobed; corolla pale yellow, 5-8 mm wide, ovary villous; stigmas 2. Capsules 12-15 mm long, ovoid, apiculate at apex, compressed.
Flowering season: April-June; Fruiting season: June-August
This mangrove species grows in highly saline soils.
This species can be distinguished from other Avicennia species by its elliptic oblong or elliptic ovate leaves and very short beaked, bean-like fruits.

Avicennia Marina

Avicennia marina

Taxonomy
Kingdom :     Plantae
Phylum :     Magnoliophyta
Class :     Equisetopsida
Order :     Lamiales
Genus :     Avicennia
Species :     marina
Author :     (Forssk.) Vierh.
Description
Color: Flowers are yellow, in terminal condensed cymes.
Shrubs or small trees, up to 4 m tall. Leaf-blades ovate or lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong or elliptic, usually abruptly acute at the apex, glabrous. Flowers sessile in terminal cymes; calyx deeply lobed; corolla pale yellow, 5-8 mm wide, ovary villous; stigmas 2. Capsules 12-15 mm long, ovoid, apiculate at apex, compressed.
Flowering season: April-June; Fruiting season: June-August
This mangrove species grows in highly saline soils.
This species can be distinguished from other Avicennia species by its elliptic oblong or elliptic ovate leaves and very short beaked, bean-like fruits.

Bruguiera Gymnorhiza

Bruguiera Gymnorhiza

Taxonomy
Kingdom :     Plantae
Phylum :     Magnoliophyta
Class :     Equisetopsida
Order :     Malpighiales
Genus :     Bruguiera
Species :     gymnorhiza
Author :     (L.) Lamk.
Description
Medium height, 30 m tall tree, much densely spreading branches. Branches and stems marked with leaf-scars and stipules.
Short or shallow buttressed like aerial roots, thickened trunk base.
Leaves opposite decussate, simple, cauline, exstipulate, petiolate,elliptic oblong, acute apex, or bluntly pointed, coriaceous 8 - 22 cm long and 5.0 - 7.5 cm broad, dark green
Flowers solitary axillary, calyx deep orange red/yellow, ribbed, campanulate, large (3 - 4 cm)
Calyx tip acute, 11 - 13 numbers
Petals 1.2 - 1.6 cm long. tips acute.
Fruit capsule, pendulous with persistent calyx; seed one, fruit falls on the ground along with the seedling
Hypocotyle upto 25 cm long, blunt apically, slightly angular, blackish dark green, vertical narrow ridges, showy with distinct persistent reddish calyx.

Brugiera Gymnorhiza

Brugiera Gymnorhiza

Taxonomy
Kingdom :     Plantae
Phylum :     Magnoliophyta
Class :     Equisetopsida
Order :     Malpighiales
Genus :     Bruguiera
Species :     gymnorhiza
Author :     (L.) Lamk.
Description
Medium height, 30 m tall tree, much densely spreading branches. Branches and stems marked with leaf-scars and stipules.
Short or shallow buttressed like aerial roots, thickened trunk base.
Leaves opposite decussate, simple, cauline, exstipulate, petiolate,elliptic oblong, acute apex, or bluntly pointed, coriaceous 8 - 22 cm long and 5.0 - 7.5 cm broad, dark green
Flowers solitary axillary, calyx deep orange red/yellow, ribbed, campanulate, large (3 - 4 cm)
Calyx tip acute, 11 - 13 numbers
Petals 1.2 - 1.6 cm long. tips acute.
Fruit capsule, pendulous with persistent calyx; seed one, fruit falls on the ground along with the seedling
Hypocotyle upto 25 cm long, blunt apically, slightly angular, blackish dark green, vertical narrow ridges, showy with distinct persistent reddish calyx.

Biogeography

The Indian coastline of about 5,700 km long can be divided into the east and west coasts and island chains. The east coast covers the maritime states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Andaman-Nicobar Islands. The West coast extends from Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat and also includes the coral atolls of Lakshadweep Islands. The total mangrove area along the Indian coast is estimated to be approximately 700,000 ha. The mangroves along the east coast of India is more (80%) than that of west coast (20%) because the terrain of the east coast has a gradual slope as plains compared with the steep gradient along the west coast.

Mangroves of Gujarat coast

Gujarat is the north western state of India and the total length of the coast line, facing the Arabian Sea is about 1600 km; situated within the longitude 68o E and 73o E and latitude 20o 10' N and 23o 10' N. Based on the geographical situation geomorphological position and variable natural land, the Gujarat coastal zones may be divided into 5 regions

  1. The Rann of Kachchh
  2. The Gulf of Kachchh
  3. The Gulf of Khambhat
  4. The Saurashtra coast
  5. The South Gujarat coast
Out of these five regions , the Gulfs constitute the major mangrove zones of the Gujarat Coast. Several minor rivers, viz. The Luni, the Mahi, the Narmada the Tapti and the Gulf of Kachchh as well as Gulf of Khambhat have divided the entire coastline, where the highest tidal amplitude (tidal bore) rises upto 10.2 m from the Mean Sea Level at Bhavnagar.

Rann of Kachchh : This area is the extreme western part of India and is divided into two regions i.e. Great Rann, which covers about 10,500 km2 and Little Rann, which covers about 3,000 Km2. Both these regions are saline desert along with arid climate, though during monsoon months i.e. July to September, this area is inundated with the upstream sea water flow along with tidal ingress from several minor creeks, water ways and canals.

Gulf of Kachchh : This region is extended between the latitude 22o 15' N and 23o 00 N and longitude between 69o 00 E and 70o 30 E. It has 2,483 ha and 12,800 ha mangrove zones in the northern coastal and southern coastal zones respectively in the Gulf of kuchchh. This extensive Gulf of Kachchh contains both mudflats islands with fringing coral reefs and scattered mangroves. Gujarat government has declared 455.92 km2 area as Marine Sanctuary from Okha to Jodiyar. An area of 162.89 km2 area at at Pirotan Island is notified as 'Marine National Park". This 'Marine National Park' is very much important ecologically, with its unique coral reefs, mangroves and other interesting marine flora and fauna.

Saurashtra coast or Kathiawar : Several islands, tidal flats, minor estuaries, embayments and beaches and rows of dunes are also present along the Saurashtra coast.

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