|Doddapatre ( Coleus aromaticus )|
Catharanthus roseus is a tropical plant used in traditional herbal medicine in regions of the world where it historically grows. Madagascar periwinkle, the common name of this medicinal and ornamental plant, indicates where the species originated. The plant has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other healing systems. Western medical science began researching Catharanthus roseus and its extracts during the 20th century, finding several compounds useful in cancer treatment. Older texts may refer to the plant by its earlier Latin name, Vinca rosea.
|Doddapatre ( Coleus aromaticus )|
t is an evergreen shrubby plant with some upright shoots growing up to one metre tall. Leaves of this plant are strongly scented and are thick, fleshy and toothed along margins. The plant bears terminal spikes of small, bluish and bi-lipped flowers.
Bauhinia tomentosa is deciduous, but can be evergreen in a mild climate. The adult plants can tolerate a moderate amount of frost, but the seedlings and younger plants should be shielded from frost. It prefers full sun and needs a moderate amount of water.
It can be propagated from seed and grows relatively fast. Plant it singly or in groups. It is suitable for rockeries, shrub borders, and large containers, on patios or next to swimming pools.
The soil needs to be well drained with compost added to enrich it. A covering of mulch over the soil is a good idea, replenishing the layer as regularly as possible.
Palmyra palms are economically useful, and widely cultivated in tropical regions. The palmyra palm has long been one of the most important trees of Cambodia and India, where it has over 800 uses. The leaves are used for thatching, mats, baskets, fans, hats, umbrellas, and as writing material.
In Cambodia, the tree is a national flora symbol/emblem that is seen growing around Angkor Wat. The sugar palm can live over 100 years.
In ancient Indonesia and ancient India, the leaves were used as paper to write on, as a kind of papyrus. In India, leaves of suitable size, shape and texture, and sufficient maturity are chosen. They are then preservedby boiling in salt water with turmeric powder. The leaves are then dried; when they are dry enough, the faces of the leaves are polished with pumice stone. Then they are cut in the proper size. A hole is cut out in one corner. Each leaf will have four pages. The writing is done with a stylus. The writing is of a very cursive and interconnected style. The leaves are then tied up as sheaves.
The stalks are used to make fences and to make a strong, wiry fiber suitable for cordage and brushes. The black timber is hard, heavy, and durable and is highly valued for construction, such as for wharf pilings.
Enormous quantities of the plant are cultivated on the Continent, to supply the grocer with the ground Chicory which forms an ingredient or adulteration to coffee. In Belgium, Chicory is sometimes even used as a drink without admixture of coffee. For this purpose, the thick cultivated root is sliced kiln-dried, roasted and then ground. It differs from coffee in the absence of volatile oil, rich aromatic flavour, caffeine and caffeotannic acid, and in the presence of a large amount of ash, including silica. When roasted, it yields 45 to 65 per cent of soluble extractive matter. Roasted Coffee yields only 21 to 25 per cent of soluble extract, this difference affording a means of approximately determining the amount of Chicory in a mixture.
When infused, Chicory gives to coffee a bitterish taste and a dark colour. French writers say it is contra-stimulante, and serves to correct the excitation caused by the principles of coffee, and that it suits bilious subjects who suffer from habitual constipation, but is ill-adapted for persons whose vital energy soon flags, and that for lymphatic or bloodless persons its use should be avoided.
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The potential benefits offered by Bergamot are not limited to those associated with heart function and cholesterol. These plant sterols have been shown to help the body maintain healthy regulation of blood glucose – the blood sugars that when out of balance can lead to a prediabetic condition. These compounds have been proven to support the body’s natural ability to control production of low-density lipoproteins, or LDL cholesterol — the so-called bad cholesterol that has been implicated as a factor in heart disease, diabetes and hypertension.
TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) herbs are classified by the way that they reorganise the body constituents to a state of balance (Qi, moisture and blood) and classified into five tastes (closely linked to smell) not disimilar from the five basic odour classifications of agarwood incense listed in the previous section, of sour, bitter, sweet, spicy and salty. TCM recognises primal forces which govern the body of which fire is the force that has an eliminative action which discharges qi downwards.
Likewise, Tibetan medicine recognises similar primal forces that govern the body but has six tastes sour, bitter, sweet, salty, hot and astringent. Selections of herbs are made based on their taste and potency with regard to the primal forces for re-balancing and restoring health – fire being the force that transforms.
In Ayurveda, there are five primary categories of matter (which combine to create 3 doshas or forces), five attributes and five elements. Fire is the element that transforms. Ayurveda recognises six tastes - sour, bitter, sweet, salty, pungent and astringent.
Unani medicine recognises the four humors which have elements, body substances ~ blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile and qualities ascribed to each humor. These classifications are based on temperament both of people and the humors themselves. Temperaments of humors and person need to be diagnosed so that humors of plants can be prescribed to bring the body back to a state of balance.
|Water Conditions:||71-82 F, 3-6 KH, pH 6.0 - 8.0|
|Supplements||Trace Elements, CO2 Fertilization, Iron, Potassium|
Is from two Greek words, ανισος (anisos), unequal, and μελος (melos), a limb – the upper twoanthers are single-celled, while the lower two are two-celled. Malabarica is botanical Latin for ‘from Malabar’, the south-west coast of India. This genus is very similar to Nepeta, the catnip or catmint, so called because of its effect on cats. I shall never forget the sight, in an old-world cottage garden in Essex, England, of a grizzled old fighting tom-cat rolling in a patch of this plant, with a soppy, euphoric grin on his battle-scarred face. I have not seen cats frolicking in the Malabar Catmint, perhaps because the specimen photographed was on a rocky outcrop by the ‘steps’ walk at the back of Picnic Bay.
The members of the Anisomeles genus are perennial evergreen herbs, bearing essential oils. Anisomeles malabarica has a shrubby growth, up to 1.5 m tall, with densely villous stems of square cross-section.
(1) Bala röga— Ativisa alone or along with Karkaangi
and Pippali in case of cough and fever (A.H.Ut.2/57 & V.M.66/10)’.
(2) Atisara— Ativisa + Bhanga + Vaca as powder
(3) Jvaratisara— sunthi, Kutaja, Musta, guduçi & Ativisa are
given orally in the form of decoction .
(4) Grahani— The decoction made of Ativia, sunthi & Musta is administered orally to destroy the Ama (C.S.Ci.15/98)3.
(5) Mutra krçchra— Ativisa, Amla dravyas, Sunthi, Goksura, Kantakari are made as Peya (gruel) and given along with Phanita (jaggery syrup)- (C.S.Su. 2/22).
(6) Visa roga— A ghee prepared with Ativisa and cow’s milk is used orally or as nasal drops in case of acute poisoning. The ghee may also be processed with Sveta and Madayantika (S.S.Ka.1/64)
(7) Musika Visa— Ativisa root is made into paste by grinding with honey and administered orally (S.S.Ka. 7/39)’.
(8) Vrana— syonaka , Prativisa, Kantakari müla are made into paste and applied over the wounds (A.H. Ut. 35/47)2.
(9) Kuksi roga /Udara rogas- 1 part Ativisa + 3 parts Añkola, administered orally with rice water (Tandulodaka)
Alangium is a small genus of flowering plants. The genus is included either in a broad view of the dogwood family Cornaceae, or as the sole member of its own family Alangiaceae.Alangium has about 24 species, but some of the species boundaries are not entirely clear.The type species forAlangium is Alangium decapetalum, which is now treated as a subspecies of Alangium salviifolium.All of the species are shrubs or small trees, except the liana Alangium kwangsiense.A. chinense, A. platanifolium, and A. salviifolium are known in cultivation
The genus consists of 24 species of small trees, shrubs and lianas, and is native to western Africa, Madagascar, southern and eastern Asia (China,Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines), tropical Australia, the western Pacific Ocean islands, and New Caledonia. Most of the species are native totropical and subtropical regions of east and southeast Asia. Five of the species extend well outside of this area. Alangium platanifolium extends from east Asia into Russia. Alangium chinense (sensu lato) extends from southeast Asia to Africa. Alangium salviifolium is the most widespread species,ranging from Africa to Australia, Fiji, and New Caledonia. Alangium villosum occurs from southeast Asia to Australia and the western Pacific Islands.Alangium grisolleoides is endemic to Madagascar and gives the genus a disjunct distribution.
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2011 Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Niu Huang (Calculus Bovis)——Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Shen Nong’s Herbal)
Fragrance, with bitter taste first then sweet taste with cool sensation, easily crushing when chewed, without sticking tooth.
A. Stirring of wind by extreme heat
Being bitter and cool with liver and heart meridians entered property, it can clear heart and liver, also extinguish wind and stop spasm. It is fit for intense heat of epidemic warm diseases, generation of wind by extreme heat, infantile convulsions due to phlegm-heat, coma with high fever, spasm and convulsions, often combined with heat-clearing and toxicity-relieving herbs and wind-extinguishing and spasm-stopping herbs, such as Huang Lian, Zhi Zi, and Gou Teng, etc.
B. Coma due to heat blockage
It is good at clearing heart heat, relieving toxicity and resolving phlegm for resuscitation. It is fit for coma due to inward invasion of intense heat into pericardium or inward invasion of epidemic warm diseases heat into pericardium, and coma due to clouding of pericardium by congestion of phlegm-heat in some diseases including wind stroke, infantile convulsions, and epilepsy and so on. It can be used singly in powder to dissolve in Zhu Li for orally taking. It is also combined with herbs to clear heart heat for resuscitation. For instance, it is combined with She Xiang, Bing Pian. Yu Jin and Zhi Zi, etc., in An Gong Niu Huang Wan from Wen Bing Tiao Bian.
C. Heat-toxin syndromes including swelling and pain in the throat, abscess, and deep-rooted boil
With good actions of clearing heat and relieving toxicity, it can be singly used for both internal and external application. It also can be combined with herbs to reinforce action of clearing heat and relieving toxicity. For swelling and pain in the throat, sores on the oral mucosa and the tongue, it is often combined with Huang Qin and Xuan Shen and so on. For swelling and pain in the throat, ulcer in throat, it is blown to throat with Zhen Zhu in powder. For abscess and deep-roared boil, it is often combined with toxicity-relieving and swelling-relieving herbs and blood-activating and accumulation-dissipating herbs. For instance, it is combined with She Xiang, Ru Xiang and Mo Yao and so on in Xi Huang Wan from Wai Ke Quan Sheng Ji (Life-Saving Manual of Diagnosis and Treatment of External Diseases).
The fruit can be peeled and eaten raw, but it can be somewhat astringent, especially if the pellicle is not removed.
Another method of eating the fruit involves roasting, which does not require peeling. Roasting requires scoring the fruit beforehand to prevent undue expansion and "explosion" of the fruit. Once cooked, its texture is similar to that of a baked potato, with a delicate, sweet, and nutty flavour.This method of preparation is popular in northern China as well as in Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, Slovenia, Croatia, Korea and Southeast Asia, where the scored chestnuts may be cooked in a tub of heated coal pebblesmixed with a little sugar.
Chestnuts can also be peeled and deep fried. One advantage to this method is that any rotten nuts can be discarded at this stage. Deep fry using a basket until the nuts are just starting to float on the surface of the oil. Lift the basket out of the pan, keeping the lid on the basket. Shake the basket in a circular motion, then remove the lid and dry the nuts on newspaper or kitchen roll.
Scientific name: Butea monosperma
Butea monosperma is a species of Butea native to tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, ranging across India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and western Indonesia. Common names include Palash, Dhak, Palah, Flame of the Forest, Bastard Teak, Parrot Tree, Keshu (Punjabi) and Kesudo (Gujurati).
It is a medium sized dry season-deciduous tree, growing to 15 m tall. It is a slow growing tree, young trees have a growth rate of a few feet per year. Theleaves are pinnate, with an 8–16 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet 10–20 cm long. The flowers are 2.5 cm long, bright orange-red, and produced in racemes up to 15 cm long. The fruit is a pod 15–20 cm long and 4–5 cm broad.
In West Bengal, it is associated with spring, especially through the poems and songs of Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who likened its bright orange flame-like flower to fire. In Santiniketan, where Tagore lived, this flower has become an indispensable part of the celebration of spring. The plant has lent its name to the town of Palashi, famous for the historic Battle of Plassey fought there
It is said that the tree is a form of Agnidev, God of Fire. It was a punishment given to Him by Goddess Parvati for disturbing Her and Lord Shiva's privacy.
In the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, these flowers are specially used in the worship of Lord Shiva on occasion of Shivratri. In Telugu, this tree is called Modugu chettu.
Cloverleaf interchanges, viewed from overhead or on maps, resemble the leaves of a four-leaf clover. In the United States, cloverleaf interchanges existed long before the interstate system. They were originally created for busier interchanges that the original diamond interchange system could not handle. Their chief advantage was that they were free-flowing and did not require the use of such devices as traffic signals. This not only made them a viable option for interchanges between freeways (where such devices are typically not an option), but they could also be used for very busy arterials where signals could present congestion problems.
They are very popular in the United States and have been used for over 40 years as the Interstate Highway System expanded rapidly. One problem is that, frequently, large trucks exceeding the area speed limit (i.e., 25 mph; 40 km/h) roll over. Another problem is the merging of traffic (see below). For these reasons, cloverleaf interchanges have become a common point of traffic congestion at busy junctions.
At-grade cloverleaf configurations with full four leaves and full outside slip ramps are extremely rare, though one exists in Toms River, New Jersey. Any other intersections with merely one, two, or three leaf ramps with outer ramps would not be designated a "cloverleaf" and simply be referred to as aJughandle intersection.
Botanical name - Clerodendrum serratum
Description - A shrub attaining the height of 3-8 ft, with bluntly quadrangular stems and not much branched. Young parts usually glabrous. Leaves usually three at the node, opposite, coarsely and sharply serrate, glabrous, base acute, stout petioles. Numerous showy flowers in lax pubescent dichotomous cymes, with a pair of acute bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork, each in the axil of a large leafy bract and collectively forming a long lax terminal usually pyramidal errect panicle of 6-10 in long. Bluish corolla, glabrous outside, cylindric, hairy within the tube at the insertion of the stamens. The 2 upper and 2 lateral lobes are elliptic, flat, spreading and the lower lobe lip-like, concave. Fruit is a 4-lobed drupe, succulent with one pyrene in each lobe. Native of East India and Malasiya. Distributed throughout in forests of Srilanka and India. Flowering can be seen in the month of Aug-Sept.
Chemical Constituents- Root bark contains glucose and D-(-)mannitol; hydrolysis of crude saponin from bark yielded oleanolic acid, queretaroic acid and serratagenic acid.
Use - Roots used in rheumatism and dyspepsia. Leaves used as febrifuge, also as an external application in cephalgia and opthalmia. Seeds aperient, used in dropsy Root - Intermittent fever, bronchial asthma, hiccup, worm infestation, burning sensation, abdominal disorders, wasting diseases, diseases of head, sprue. It is used in febrile, catarrhal affections and also in malarial fevers.It is used in snake poison and in diseases where breathing is difficult, like asthma allergy, bronchitis, cough etc