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Standardized Herbal Extracts

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 Extracts: 5 Kg/5ltr

Essentials Oils: 5ltr

 


Acorus Calamus - Bach Extract

Acorus Calamus - Bach Extract
Acorus Calamus -  Bach  Extract

Item Code: Bach

Description :
A semi-aquatic, perennial, aromatic herb with creeping rhizomes, growing wild and also cultivated throughout India at an altitude of 2,200 m in the Himalayas. Rhizome horizontal, jointed, somewhat vertically compressed, spongy within, 1.25-2.5 cm in thickness, pale to dark brown or ocassionally orange-brown in colour, leaves grass-like or sword shaped, long and slender flowers small, yellow-green, in spadix; berries green, angular, 1-3 seeded; seeds oblong.



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Henna Extract

Common Name : Henna


Plant Parts Used : Leaves

Description :
A middle sized or large, much-branched shrub, sometimes tree-like, branches 4 angled, usually ending in a sharp point. Leaves opposite, 2-3 cm long, often acute and sharp-pointed. Flowers small, white or pinkish, fragrant, in terminal large bunches. Fruit small, size of a pea, round; seeds many.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves of the plant have certain medicinal properties. They are astringent and are used as a prophylactic against skin diseases. A decoction of leaves is used as gargle in sore throat. The paste of leaves is largely used in Indian homes in headache, burning sensation in feet, etc.

The leaves have also been shown to have some action against tubercular and other bacteria, and in typhoid and haemorrhagia. The plant has not, however, so far been put to much use in this manner. The bark and seeds of the plant are also reported to be used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine.

Actions and Uses :
The chief use of the Henna plant is as pleasant orange dye for colouring palms, nails, feet, hair, beard, even tails and limbs of animals. Henna, mixed with other natural dyes, is largely used as hairdye and even for textiles.
The oil obtained from its flowers is used in perfumery.

Kava Kava Herbal Extracts

Kava Kava Herbal Extracts
Kava Kava Herbal Extracts

Botanical Name : Piper methysticum


Plant Parts Used : The peeled, Dried and Divided Rhizome

Description :
An indigenous shrub several feet him, leaves cordate, acuminate, with very short axillary spikes of flowers; stem dichotamars, spotted. The natives prepare a fermented liquor from the upper portion of the rhizone and base of the stems; it is narcotic and timulant and is drunk before important regious rites. The root of the plant, chewed and mixed with the saliva, gives a hot into rating juice; it is mixed with pure water or the water of the coco-nut. Its continued use in large doses causes inflammation of the body and eyes, resulting in leprous ulcers, the skin becomes parched and peels off in scals.

 
     
 

Commercial Kava rhizome is in whitish on grey-brown roughly wedge-shaped fragments from which the periderm is cut off about 2 inches thick; the transverse section usually shows a dense central pith, surrounded by a clean ring of vascular bundles, narrow and radiating, separated by broadish light-maloced medullary rays. Fracture starchy, faint pleasant odour, taste bitter, pungent, aromatic; it yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash.

Characteristics and Constituents :
Oil cells often contain a greenish-yellow resin, termed kawine; it is strongly aromatic and acrid; the plant contains a second resin less active than the first, a volatile oil and an alkaloid, Kavaine Methysticcum yangonin, and abundance of starch.

Actions and Uses :
The effect on the nerve entres is at first stimulating, then depressing, ending with paralysis of the respiratory centre. The irritant action and insolubility of the resin has lessened its use as a local anaesthetic, but for over 125 years Kava root has been found valuable in the treatment of gonorrhoea both acute and chronic, vaginitis, leucorrhoea, nocturnal incontinence and other ailments of the genito-urinary tract. It resembles pepper in local action. A 20 per cent, oil of Kava resin in oil of Sandalwood, called gonosan, is used internally for gonorrhoea. Being a local anaesthetic it relieves pain and has an aphrodisiac effect; it has also an antiseptic effect on the urine. The capsules contain 0.3 gram; two to four can be given several times per day. As Kava is a strong diuretic. It falls under the category of Generally Regarded as Safe Products (GRAS) 

Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Extract

Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Extract
Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Extract

Botanical Name : Adhatoda vasica, Justicia adhatoda 

Common Name : Adulsa

Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Roots, Flowers and Stem Bark

Description :
It is a small evergreen, subherbacious bush. The Leaves are 10 to 16 cms in length, minutely pubescent and broadly lanceolate. The inflorescence is dense, short pedunculate, bractate and spike terminal. The corolla is large and white with lower lip streaked purple. The fruit is a 4-seeded small capsule.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves of the plant contain an essential oil and alkaloids vasicine, N-oxides of vasicine, vasicinone, deoxyvasicine and maiontone. The roots are known to contain vasicinolone, vasicol, peganine and 2 - hydroxy - 4 - glucosyl - oxychalcone. The flowers contain ß-sitosterol-D-glucoside, kaempferol, its glycosides and quercetin. The growth in vitro of all the strains of M. tuberculosis was inhibited by the essential oil (2-20 µg/ml). Ultrastructurally the bacilli appeared abnormal and swollen. The active alkaloid-vasicine and its autooxidation product-vasicinone-have shown broncho- dilator and antihistaminic effects. The activity is comparable with theophylline. Uterine stimulant activity and moderate hypotensive activity of the alkaloids were reported. Thrombopoeitic activity of vasicine has been observed. 

The leaf extract has been used for treatment of bronchitis and asthma for many centuries. It relieves cough and breathlessness. It is also prescribed commonly in ayurveda for bleeding due to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, local bleeding due to peptic ulcer, piles, menorrhagia etc. Large doses of fresh juice of leaves have been used in tuberculosis. Its local use gives relief in pyorrhoea and in bleeding gums.

Actions and Uses :
In ayurveda the human use of the leaf extract, is considered safe. The oil is shown to have low toxicity in mice and guinea pigs. The alcoholic extract has insecticidal and pesticidal activity. Teratogenic studies were safe. However, the uterotonic and aborti- facient activity prevents its use during pregnancy, particularly in high doses of extracts.

Adhatoda Zeylanica Herbal Extracts

Adhatoda Zeylanica Herbal Extracts
Adhatoda Zeylanica Herbal Extracts

Common Name : Vasaka / Malabar Nut

Plant Parts Used : Fresh dried Leaves

Description :
Leaves are simple, opposite, petiolate, ex-stipulate, 10-20 cm long and 3-10 cm broad, lanceolate to oval - lanceolate, crenate, margin, a tapering base and an acuminate apex, light green in colour, 8-10 pairs of lateral veins which are reticulate. Petioles 2-8 cm long, exstipulate, glabrescent. Odour characteristic and taste bitter.

 
     
 

Actions and Uses :
The bronchodilatiry and expectorant properties of the leaves are attributed to vasicine. The drug possesses abortifacient activity and significant antimicrobial activity against gingival inflammation and pyrrhoea.
Clinical trials of the drug Wintry (containing vasicine and vasicinone) have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma. The drug is known to possess abortifacient activity and hence should not be used during pregnancy

Lawsonia Alba Dry Extract ( Henna)

Lawsonia Alba Dry Extract ( Henna)
Lawsonia Alba Dry Extract ( Henna)

Common Name : Henna
Plant Parts Used : Leaves

Description :
A middle sized or large, much-branched shrub, sometimes tree-like, branches 4 angled, usually ending in a sharp point. Leaves opposite, 2-3 cm long, often acute and sharp-pointed. Flowers small, white or pinkish, fragrant, in terminal large bunches. Fruit small, size of a pea, round; seeds many.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves of lawsonia alba have certain medicinal properties. They are astringent and are used as a prophylactic against skin diseases. A decoction of leaves is used as gargle in sore throat. The paste of leaves is largely used in Indian homes in headache, burning sensation in feet, etc.

The leaves have also been shown to have some action against tubercular and other bacteria, and in typhoid and haemorrhagia. The plant has not, however, so far been put to much use in this manner.
The bark and seeds of the plant are also reported to be used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine.

Actions and Uses :
The chief use of the Henna plant is as pleasant orange dye for colouring palms, nails, feet, hair, beard, even tails and limbs of animals. Henna, mixed with other natural dyes, is largely used as hairdye and even for textiles.
The oil obtained from its flowers is used in perfumery.

Adrak Extract

Common Name : Adrak 
Botanical Name : Zingiber Officinale
Plant Parts Used : Rhizome

Description : 
A herbaceous rhizornatous perennial, up to 90 cm in height when fully grown. The herb develops several lateral shoots in clumps. Leazies are 15-30 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, with sheathiiig bases, the blade gradually tapering to a point. The rhizomes are aromatic, thick lobed pale yellow, bearing simple alternate dlistichous narrow, oblong lanceolate leaves.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Ginger contains 1-2% volatile oil and 5-8% resinous matter, starch and mucilage. The oil of ginger is a mixture of over 24 constituents, consisting of monoterpenes (phellandrene, (+) carnphene, cineolc, citral and borneol) and sesquiterpenes etc (zingiberine, and bisabolene). The pungent component is gingerol-formed in the plant from phenylalaanine, nialoiiate and hexanoate. Minor constituents of an extract are gingreniols, methylgingediol, gingeryldiacetates and methyl gingediacetates.

Actions and Uses :
Anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema has been shown. The active principles gingerol, and dehydrogingerdione and gingerdione were shown to be potent inhibitors of pr.ostaglandin synthesis - confirming the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect. The antirheumatic effects were further confirmed by other inves- tigators. Antihistaminic activity has also been shown in vitroll. The plant inhibits the virion toxic factor production in infected chorioallantoin membrane and also inhibits the growth of W.M. - 25d malignant cell-line. Cardiac inotropic activity has been shown in, Dogs and guinea pigs. Ginger was shown to have significant antiemetic and antivertigo effects like dramamine. It has been lised effectively along with Piper nigrum and Piper longum in viral hepatitis. Ginger forms an important constituent of many ayurvedic formula- tions. It is chiefy used as a home remedy for nausea and dyspepsia.
With the recommended doses and the use as spice, side- effects are hardly reported. With large doses of some of the active principles CNS depression has been noted in animals.

Lawsonia Inermis Dry Ext. ( Mehndi)

Lawsonia Inermis Dry Ext. ( Mehndi)
Lawsonia Inermis Dry Ext. ( Mehndi)

Botanical Name : Lawsonia Inermis
Common Name : Mehndi
Plant Parts Used : Bark, Leaves, Flowers, Seeds

Description :
A glabrous much branched shrub or quite a small tree with grayish brown bark. Leaves are opposite, subsessile, elliptic or broadly lanceolate, entire, acute or obtuse, 2-3 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. Flowers are numerous, small, white or rose coloured, fragrant.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves of lawsonia inermis contain soluble matter, lawsone, 2-hydroxy - 1:4 - naphthoquinone resin and tannin, gallic acid, glucose, mannitol, fat, resin and mucilage are also present. The colouring matter is the quinone.

Actions and Uses :
Alcoholic extract of the leaves showed mild anti- bacterial activity against Staph aureus and E. coli. Antibacterial and antifungal activities have been confirmed. The antihaemorrhagic properties are attributed to lawsone. The naphthoquinone has emmenogogue and oxytocie actions.

Leaves are used as emmenogogue and as an antifungal drug:Unani physicians prescribe it for external us in headache. It is used for jaundice. As a cooling agent it is used for burning of skin. The local use on palms and soles is widespread in India. Allergic reaction is rare. No mutagenic activity was observed in Ames' test. 

Aloe Vera Extracts

Common Name : Ghritkumari
Botanical Name : Aloe Barbadensis, Aloe Vera 
Plant Parts Used: Dried Leaves

Description :
Leaves of aloe vera are large, succulent, suulate, sessile, 20-50 cm long and 5-10 cm wide. Apex in the form of a sharp and acute spine. Both the surfaces are strongly cuticularized. Dried leaf juice dark chocolate brown to black in colour and of irregular masses. Odour characteristic; taste very bitter.

 
     
 

Actions and Uses :
Cathartic action of the drug, limited to large intestine, is attributed to anthraquinone glycosides, chiefly aloin. Latter is not absorbed in upper gut but hydrolysed to the active aglycone at the site of action in the colon and rectum by intestinal bacteria. The anthrones irritate the mucus membrane leading to an increase in the secretion of mucus, thus stimulating peristalsis. Also they induce an active secretion of water and electrolytes into the lumen of the gut, and inhibit the absorption of electrolytes and water by the colon.
Prolonged use of aloe barbadensis may severely affect the electrolyte balance and loss of potassium may ultimately reduce the laxative action and disturb the cardiac rhythm in heart patients. Larger doses leads to accumulation of blood in pelvic region and reflux stimulation of uterine muscles and may bring about abortion or premature birth in late pregnancy. Toxic doses can also cause kidney damage. Active principles generally appear in the milk during lactation. Due to these reasons the drug is contraindicated in pregnancy, lactation, kidney complaints and irritable bowel conditions.

Mentha Arvensis Linn Herbal Extracts

Mentha Arvensis Linn Herbal Extracts
Mentha Arvensis Linn Herbal Extracts

Common Name : Pudina / Corn Mint
Plant Parts Used : Parts Used. Leaves, flowering tops, stems, extract

Description :
A small herb of erect habit. Stem short, branched, square and creeping rhizomes. Leaves narrow below stalked, oblong, lanceolate toothed, 3-6 cm long. Small lilac flowers are in whorls.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The main constituents of oil are 4.5-10% esters- Menthyl acetate, not less than 44% free alcohols calculated as menthol and 15-20% of ketones calculated as methonic. M. arvensis yields 70-90% of menthol. A key intermediate (+) pulegone that appears to be either oxidised to mentho-furane or reduced to (+) isomethone or (-) menthone, which are further reduced and converted to esters, menthone giving menthol and menthyl acetate. The other component found are œ - pipene, œ -thujene, -Iimonine, ß-phellandrene, cineol piperitone, caryophyllene and unidentified sesquiterpene.

Actions and Uses :
The antheimin.tic, antifungal and antibacterial actions of menthol have been studied extensively. Menthol paralyses nematode muscles, and depresses isolated rabbit intestine. Menthol has a weak to moderate local anaesthetic activity. A study of the effect of menthol on sensory receptors in the skin, and on the spinal monosynaptic reflex in the cat, showed that nerve discharge in the saphenous nerve was promoted by external application of 0.01-0.12% menthol.

In urethane-anaesthetized rabbits, menthol lowered the blood pressure slightly, but had no effect on respiration, heart rate and arterial blood flow. It has a vasodilating action on rabbit car on direct application. An increase(approx.40%) in gastro-enemus blood flow was induced on external application of a plaster containing menthol to rabbit hind limb. Local anaesthetic activity has been shown. Mentha Arvensis is widely used in many parts of the world, as a home remedy and in medical practice. Its use is as an expectorant, urinary tonic, in diseases of the liver and spleen, asthma and for pain in the joints. In India and China, the leaves and stem are made into an infusion, as a carminative and antispasmodic. It is used as a diaphoretic in fevers, indigestion, and cephalgia. An infusion with tea and lemon grass is used for general well being, carminative action and in fever.

An adverse effect reported on exposure to large doses of menthol, is the degradation of biological membranes. Menthol and pulegone from Mentha arvensis were administered to rats by gavage for 28 days at several dose levels. At the two highest (80 and 160 mg/kg) doses, pulegone induced atonia, lowered blood creatinine level, and caused histopathological changes in the liver and white matter of the cerebellum. Menthol exposure ( 200 mg/kg) induced weight reduction and hepatocyte vacuolation at all dose levels.

Aloe Indica Royle

Common Name : Ghritkumari
Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Juice and Pulp

Description :
Aloe plants are characterized by stemless large, thick, fleshy leaves, lance shaped, sharp apex and a spiny margin. The colour of leaves varies from species to species - gray to bright green, chocolate brown to black.
 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The three main pentoside constituents of aloe indica royle are barbaloin, isobarbaloin and ß-barbaloin. The other minor constituents isolated are volatile and nonvolatile oils, resin, gum, emodin, chrysophanic acid and traces of coumarin.

Actions and Uses :
Intravenous injection of extract of aloe increases the flow of hepatic bile in the anaesthetized dog. The duration of action is relatively long. The effect of the water and alcohol extract of the leaves in female rats showed 88% reduction in fertility. The effect of the aqueous extract was studied in Triton induced hyperlipidoemia in mondey.

Aloe Indica is used as an appetite-stimulant tonic in small doses and in larger doses as a purgative, and indirectly, emmenogogue and antheimintic in children. The leaf extract along with sugar is used in cough and colds. A sweet confection prepared from the pulp of the leaves is given in piles. The ayurvedic preparation Kumari Asava is used in several ailments such as general debility, cough, dyspnoea, asthma etc. it is also used in jaundice.

With standard doses used in man, occasionally a laxative effect can occur.

Mimosa Pudica Extract

Common Name : Lajalu / Chui - Mui / Sensitive Plants
Plants Part Used : Root, Laves and Seeds

Description :
Roots have characteristic 6 to 8 layers of cork cells. The secondary cortex consists of thin-walled parenchyma filled with starch granules. The cells of the cortex contain both tannin and calcium oxalate crystals. These tannin-containing cells, starch granules, crystals of calcium-oxalate, cork cells and reticulate cells are the constituents of the root powder.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Several studies have shown several biochemical substances involved in the contractility of the leaves. An alkaloid, mimosine has been isolated from the plant. The root extract contains 10% tannin, ash, calcium oxalate crystals and mimosine. An adrenaline like substance has been identified in the leaf extract.

Actions and Uses :
In experimental animals a crude extract from the plant showed a mild to moderate diuretic response. The total plant extract was depressant on isolated rabbit duodenum. The percent decrease in either amplitude or frequency of duodenal contractions was found to be only marginally different from that found after a similar dose of atropine sulphone. In a study of the effect of Lajjalu on regeneration of nerve in experimental animals it was seen that the plant enhances regeneration by 30-40%. The medicinal use of the plant Mimosa pudica dates back to Charaka and Sushruta. The sensitive plant is commonly used for bleeding disorders like menorrhagia, dysentery with blood and mucus, and piles. The root powder or decoction is used. The juice of freshly crushed leaves is used internally and externally in piles. A preliminary clinical trial, in 9 women with menorrhagia, exhibited promising results with relief in severity of bleeding. It is also applied externally to fissures, skin wounds and ulcers. Its action on small blood vessels is implicated in its hemostatic property.
A clinical study showed that the plant was well tolerated. It was given in the form of micronized root powder made from the dry extract. The capsules contained 500 mg and the dose was 1,000- 1,500 mg thrice a day. The acute toxicity studies in mice showed LD(100), to he 400 mg/kg and LD, to be 100 mg/kg.

Nardostachys Dry Extracts ( Jatamansi)

Nardostachys Dry Extracts ( Jatamansi)
Nardostachys Dry Extracts ( Jatamansi)

Common Name : Jatamansi Oil
Plant Parts Used : Rhizome, Oil from rhizome

Description :
Erect herb, rhizome thick covered with a bundle of fine, reddish brown fibres, fragrant. Leaves radical, 15-20 cm narrowed into the petiole, entire, flowers capitate, pinkish white.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
A volatile essential oil 0.5% resin, sugar, starch, bitter extractive matter and gum are obtained from the rhizome. Jatamansi oil contains a ketone, jatamansone which is the same as valeranone (in valerian). It also contains jatamansic acid. Jatamansone semi- carbazone is a sesquiterpenic ketone isolated from the rhizomes.

Actions and Uses of Nardostachys :
Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antioestrogenic activity. When given alone it is also manifested by its oestrogen-antagonising action on the uterus of mice at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. The volatile oil was found to be loss active than quinidine in several tests. Also it did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias. This drug has been experimentally shown to possess a tranquilizing and hypotensive activity in dogs and also induced hypotension in rats. The rhizome is used in ayurveda for the treatment of hysteria and other neurological disorders. It is very interesting to note that in conditions of insomnia and restlessness this drug was used by Sushruta to produce tranquility and sedation. it promotes the growth and blackness of hair. Infusion prepared from the fresh roots is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical states, palpitations and tension headache. It is also said to be useful in menopausal disturbances. Clinical trials were carried out with jatamansone in essential hypertension. Jatamansone has been used in febrile delirium and also in delirium tremens. In dysmenorrhoea, it is used for pain relief and a smooth menstrual flow.

LD(50) of Jatamansone was found to be 80.3 mg/kg while in the case of quinidine it is 55 mg/kg. This shows that intravenous toxicity in mice in the case of Jatamansone is less than that with quinidine. Large doses of Jatamansone can cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

Ashwagandha Herbal Extracts

Ashwagandha Herbal Extracts
Ashwagandha Herbal Extracts

Botanical Name : Withania Somnifera 
Common Name : Ashwagandha
Plant Parts Used : Roots, Leaves and Seeds

Description of Withania Somnifera :
A branched erect shrub, 0.3-1.5 m. Leaves 5-10 x 2.5-5 cm and ovate. Flowers greenish or lurid yellow, about 5 together in an umbellate cyme.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The roots contain choline, tropanol, pseudotropanol, cuscohygrene, 3-tigloyloxytropane, isopelletierine, anaferine and anahygrine. Withasomnine also has been isolated from the roots. The roots also have been reported to contain withaferin A and several other steroidal lactones including pharmacologically active with- anolides. These were also isolated as minor constituents of the leaves.

Actions and Uses :
Acetone soluble alkaloid fraction of the roots showed C.N.S. depressant effect in dogs, albino rats and mice. Convulsions produced by metrazol were exacerbated in rats but the animals were protected against supraorbital electroshock seizures. It produced hypnosis in mice. Potentiation of barbiturate, ethanol and urethane- induced hypnosis were observed in mice. Increase in 5 HT and depletion of calcium was also observed. Alcoholic extract potentiated thiopental-induced sleep in albino mice.

It was not effective in antagonizing rnetrazol and strychnine induced convulsions and mortality7. The functional activity of normal human T lymphocytcs as assessed by local xenogenic graft via host reaction was also affected by withanolide and withaferine. Withaferine affects both T and B lymphoeytes. Adaptogenic antistress action of pi ant extract from defatted seeds was shown by the increase in duration of sleeping time, and prevention of the reduction of ascorbic acid and cortisol contents of adrenals in mice significantly in comparison with controls. Significant protection against aspirin and stress-induced ulcers was also observed in rats. A dose of 60 mglkg for three days showed 50% inhibition of milk-induced leucocytosis in albino rats.

The effect of Ashwagandharishta-medicated wine prepared from the roots of Withania somnifera was studied in 30 patients with anxiety neurosis. Moderate improvement in palpitation, tremors, headache, anorexia, lack of concentration, dyspepsia, fatigue and irritability was observed, while maximum improvement was seen in nervousness with 49 ml of Ashwagandharishta administered in two divided doses for one month. Root powder was studied in 46 patients of rheumatoid arthritis with a dose of 4, 6 or 9 gm/day for a period of 3 to 4 weeks. Pain and swelling disappeared completely in 14 patients; considerable improvement was observed in 10 patients and 11 patients showed mild improvement. There was no relief in 4 patients and 7 patients discontinued the treatments.
Root powder in a dose of 9 gm/day in divided doses used for 3 to 4 weeks in patients with arthritis was well tolerated. No side effects were observed with Ashwagandharishta in a dose of 40 ml/day in two divided doses given for a month to thirty patients with anxiety neurosis. In acute toxicity studies LD, 0 of the alcoholic extract of seeds was 1750 141 mg (P. O.) in albino mice.

Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)

Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)
Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)

Common Name : Tulsi
Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Seeds and Root

Description of Ocimum Sanctum :
Tulsi plant, is a shrub reaching a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m. The leaves are 2-4 cms in length. There are several varieties of the plant. However, commonly used one is with dark leaves. The inflorescence is a long spike with tiny purple flowers.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves contain an essential oil which has been studied with gas chromatography. The oil contains eugenol, eugenal, carvacrol, methyl-chavicol, limatrol and caryophylline. The seeds contain an oil composed of fatty acids and sitosterol. The mucilage is compared of sugars - xylose and polysaccharides.

Actions and Uses of Ocimum sanctum :
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil has been shown against M. tuberculosis and Staph aureus in vitro and other bacteria and fungi. Eugenol and methyleugenol showed a positive activity. Adaptogenic (antistress) activity has been found in mice and rats. The plant increased the physical endurance and prevented stress-induced ulcers. In general pharmacology the aqueous extract showed hypotensive activity and inhibited the smooth muscle contraction induced by acetylcholine, carbachol and histamine. It also potentiated the hexobarbitone sleeping time. Protective action against histamine-induced bronchospasm has been shown in animals.

A tea prepared with the leaves of Tulsi is commonly used in cough,cold,mild indigestion, diminished appetite and malaise. The solid extract of Tulsi, in a dose of 500 mg x 3 for one week, significantly relieved the breathlessness in 20 patients with tropical eosinophilia. There was however no reduction in the eosinophil count in peripheral blood. It is commonly used with black pepper in bronchial asthma. An oil exlacted from Tulsi is used as drops in ear infections. Fungal and bacterial infections of skin are treated with Tulsi juice. The seeds are used as a general tonic. 

The fresh leaves are taken as prasad by millions of Indians for many years. The powdered leaves, 5-27 g per day were taken by 120 patients for 3 months. The only side effect was constipation. In animals, with large dose of an extract, antispermatogenic activity has been shown.

Asparagus Adscendens Ext. ( White Musli)

Asparagus Adscendens Ext. ( White Musli)
Asparagus Adscendens Ext. ( White Musli)

Common Name : Safed Musli
Plant Parts Used : Tuberous Root and Rhizome

Description of Asparagus Adscendens :
This is a thorny plant growing tall and erect. The rhizomes are 0.25-0.5 ern thick and white in colour.It is used as an aphrodisiac as well as to increase sperm count. Its use as general tonic is also well known all over India.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Spirostanol glycosides (asparanin A and asparanin B) and two furostanol glycosides (asparoside A and B) have been isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits of Asparagus adscondens'. Sarsasapogenin and diosgenin have also been reported. Mucilaginous extract of Safed musli is also studied. The protein content is significantly high in the root.

Actions and Uses of Safed Musli :
The demulcent properties have been described. The nutritive properties of the plant are ascribed to the protein content.
With the clinically recommended doses no adverse effects have been reported.

Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)

Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)
Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)

Common Name : Shatavari
Plant Parts Used : Roots and Leaves

Description of Asparagus Racemosus :
The plant is a climber growing to 1-2 m in length. The leaves are like pine-needles, small and uniform. The inflorescence has tiny white flowers, in small spikes. The roots are finger-like, and clustered.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Saponins are present in all species of Asparagus. In a comparative study, various members belonging to this plant species, including Asparagus racemosus, have been investigated for the presence of alkaloids, proteins, starch and tannin. Chemically, the variants from the southern part of India differed from the ones obtained from northern India, in having the A, fraction of the Asparagus glycosides. This fraction was absent in the North Indian species. Mucilage is also present in roots. Diosgenin was shown to occur in A. Racemosus leaves.

Actions and Uses :
The plant's action as a galactogogue has been reported. In a study by Sahnis et al it was shown that in the estrogen-primed rats A. racemosus could cause both increase in the weight of mammary lobulo-alycolar tissue and the milk yield. It was attributed to the action of released corticosteroids or an increase in prolactin. Gaitonde and Jethmalani have observed antioxytocic and anti- ADH activity in the saponin fractions isolated from the roots of A. racemosus.

In a recent study by Sharma et al. Shatavari was shown to possess anabolic properties viz. growth promotion. The authors also consider the plant as an adaptogenic substance.
The shatavari plant has been used in ayurveda for various conditions. Its main use has been as a galactogogue (Stanya) to increase milk secretion during lactation. Bhavmishra mentions this use particularly. It is also used as a general tonic, and as an aphrodisiac. 

In the doses of the root powder used clinically no adverse reactions have been reported. The bark of the plant is reported to be toxic.

Operculina Turpethum Herbal Extract ( Nisoth)

Operculina Turpethum Herbal Extract ( Nisoth)
Operculina Turpethum Herbal Extract ( Nisoth)

Common Name : Nisoth
Plant Parts Used : Root, Stem bark

Description of Operculina Turpethum :
It is a perennial climber. It exudes a milky juice. The roots are long, slender, fleshy and much branched. Stems are very long, twining, twisted and tough and brown. The leaves are small and ovate. There are few flowering cymes with white flowers. The features of the plant have been studied. The stem of 0perculina turpethum was found to be identical with commercial black nisoth. The drug available as safed nisoth in the market is Marsdenia tenacissima. Powdered root when exposed to UV light has a bluish yellow fluorescence.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Turpethum roots contain a glycoside resin which is mainly concentrated in the root bark. It contains an ether soluble glycoside, turpethin, œ-turpethin and ß-turpethin. The total ash is 4.2%. Resin content 9-10.50%.

Actions and Uses :
The laxative action has been attributed to the œ-turpethin and ß-turpethin content of the plant. In constipation, it is an effective laxative. It is used in periodic fevers. In the treatment of anaemia accompanied by splenomegaly, it is used along with other therapy. It is also used to relieve flatulence and colic. In the treatment of obesity, it is used to decrease fat. 

Azadirachta Indica Seed/Leaf/Bark Ext.3 Bitter

Azadirachta Indica Seed/Leaf/Bark Ext.3 Bitter
Azadirachta Indica Seed/Leaf/Bark Ext.3 Bitter

Common Name : Neem
Plant Parts Used : The bark of the root and trunk; Seeds, Leaves

Description of Azadirachta Indica :
The bark should be new and is a rusty grey colour, inside yellow and foliated, coarsely fibrous, no odour, powerfully bitter and less astringent than the outer coarser bark, if taken from old roots the outer crust must be taken off. Ancient days it was used in Shake-bil and scorpion sting. As bitter tonic and applied to boils, skin diseases.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Margosic acid, nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidin.
Margosin, a crystalline principle, and tannic acid.

Actions and Uses of Neem Plant :
Bitter tonic, astringent, antipergative, antiseptic used in ulcers and eczema, skin diseases and in rheumatism. 
The oil obtained from the fruit is used for burning, that from the bark is used medicinally and is anthelmintic and emetic; it is applied externally for rheumatism. The decoction of Azadirachta is said to be cathartic and in large doses slightly narcotic. It is a stomachic and taps it for toddy. An ointment to destroy lice is made from the pulp and is also used for scald head and other skin diseases. Neem plant is useful for cramps, obstinate ulcers, etc.

Phyllanthus Niruri Extract

Phyllanthus Niruri Extract
Phyllanthus Niruri Extract

Common Name : Chanca Piedra / Amla 
Plant Parts Used : Dried fruit, The nut or seed, Leaves, Bark and Flowers, Ripe fruits

Description :
The Phyllanthus Niruri tree is a deciduous, small or middle-sized, with a crooked trunk, and spreading branches, leaves, subsessile 10-13 by 2.5-8 mm closely set along the branchlets, distichous, light-green, glabrous, narrowly linear obtuse, imbricate when young. Flowers greenish yellow in axillary, fascicles on the leaf-hearing branchlets often on the naked portion below the leaves.Fruit 1.3-1.6 em, fleshy, glabrous and pale yellow of three 2 seeded crustaceous cocci.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The fruit is a rich source of ascorbic acid-Vitamin C. Ten gms of fresh fruits contain 600-900 mg of Vitamin C3. The small fruit variant contains more Vitamin C than the large variant. According to recent work fruits lose Vitamin C more when dried in the sun than in the shade. Ellagic acid is present in bark.

Actions and Uses of Phyllanthus Niruri / Chanca Piedra :
Alcoholic extract of the plant (1 gm/kg) has shown an increase in the cardiac glycogen and a decrease in serum GOT, GPT and LDH in isoprotenol pretreated rats, suggesting a cardio- protective action. It showed a reduction in serum cholesterol levels and a significant antiatherogenic effect. This study suggests that Vitamin C content alone may not he responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of the plant in animals.

The fruit of P. emblica is commonly used as a tonic especially in winter season in India. The leaf is used in conjunctivitis, bronchitis and leueorrhoea. The juice of the fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in urinary infections. The leaves are used as an infusion with fenugreek seeds in cases of chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. The milk juice is considered a good application on offensive sores. In Cambodia the leaves are used in the preparation of antithermic lotion and baths and the decoction of the roots is given in myalgia following some febrile conditions. It has no antidotal action against snake-bite and scorpion sting. P. emblica (Amalaki Rasayana) is useful in both acid-peptic ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. It is considered as one of the foremost Rasayana drugs imparting a long healthy life and weight gain. Improved haematological picture and diminished E.S.R. are also observed. The dried fruit powder is applied to hair and skin for increasing hair growth and lustre.

The drug is not reported to have any side effects even after prolonged use. The results with large doses in animals reveal that atropinization completely blocked the hypotension in dogs and spasmogenic effect on rabbit ileum.

Piper Cubeba

Common Name : Sugandha Mirchi / Cubeb Pepper
Plant Parts Used : Mature, Dried fruit

Description :
Fruit globular, wrinkled, 4-6 mm in diameter, dark brown, with the base prolonged into a thin straight flattened, about 4 mm long stalk. Fruit hard, stony, albumen white and oily. Odour, aromatic and characteristic; taste bitter and spicy.

 
     
 

Actions and Uses of Piper Cubeba :
Composite herbal drugs containing P.cubeba as one of the ingredients are clinically effective in the treatment of cough. Alcoholic extract of the drug shows antibacterial activity against Micrococcus pyrogens var. aureus. Oil of cubeb is effective against influenza virus and Bacillus typhosus.

Bacopa Monnieri Herb Dried Extract 8:1

Bacopa Monnieri Herb Dried Extract 8:1
Bacopa Monnieri Herb Dried Extract 8:1

Common Name : Nir Brahmi
Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Stem, Dried whole plant

Description of Bacopa Monnieri :
Creeping, glabrous, succulent herb, rooting at nodes. Stem 10-30 cm long, 1-2 mm thick, soft, glabrous; branches ascending. Leaves 0.6-2.5 cm long and 3-8mm broad, sessile, obovate-oblong or spatulate, entire, nerves obscure and lower surface dotted. Flowers blue or white with purple veins, axillary and solitary on long pedicels. Capsule ovoid, glabrous, up to 5 mm long. No distinct odour; taste slightly bitter.

 
     
 

Actions and Uses :
Alcoholic extract increases the learning performance of rats and the activity is attributed to saponin mixture consisting of bacosides A, B and other saponins. Other pharmacological effects of the extracts include sedative, antiepileptic, cardiotonic, vascoconstrictor, and anti-inflammatory activity Brain tonic.
Sedation is associated with the therapeutic doses of the drug.

Bambusa Arundinacae Herbal Extracts

Bambusa Arundinacae Herbal Extracts
Bambusa Arundinacae Herbal Extracts

Common Name : Bans 
Plant Parts Used : The siliceous concretions on young-shrubs, Bark, Root and Flowers

Description :
The plant is erect, bending at the summit and pointed, hollow between joints, branches, alternate, thorns 2 or 3 alternate on the joints, leaves sheathing, linear, lanceolate. The plant grows quite tall and is ornamental.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Vansalochanam contains silica 90% or silicon as hydrate of silicic acid, peroxide of iron, potash, lime, aiumina, vegetable matter. The grains of the plant contain water 11.0%, starch 73.1%, albuminoids 11.86%, fibre 1.7% and ash 1.2%. The young shoots containing cyanogenic glyposide are poisonous. The glycoside is hydrolysed by an enzyme also present in the shoots when they are cut and soaked in water.

Actions and Uses :
Not much experimental work has been carried out on the plant. The young shoots contain 0.3 per cent hydrocyanic acid and are lethal to mosquito larvae.

Vansalochanam is used clinically for the treatment of praincha and given in combination with other drugs, relieves burning sensation. It is also useful to children with cough and asthma. A decoction of bamboo joints is said to increase the flow of lochia after delivery. The juice of leaves'with aromatics is given in haematemesis; older and dried stems of bamboo are used as splints in fracture, young shoots of the bamboo made into poultice is an efficacious application for dislodgement of worms from ulcers of cattle, the juice is poured on the vermin and the liquid mass applied and secured by a bandage. Vansalochanam is a stimulant and a tonic used in asthma, tuberculosis, jaundice, leprosy, anaemia and other vata rogas. In combination with other astringent medicines it is also given in chronic dysentery and internal haemorrhage. Sitopaladi churna is given in tuberculosis with honey. In urinary retention vansalochanam is used with rice water and sugar.

One quarter of an ounce of raw shoots or a slightly larger amount, when insufficiently cooked can cause death. The young shoots contain 0.3 per cent hydrocyanic acid. Chronic intake of cyanogenic alkaloids can lead to tropical ataxia due to neuropathy. 

Piper Longum ( Pippali) Dry Ext.

Piper Longum ( Pippali) Dry Ext.
Piper Longum ( Pippali) Dry Ext.

Common Name : Peepal
Plant Parts Used : Fruit, Root and Stem

Description :
The erect shrub has a thick, jointed and branched root-stock. Leaves are numerous, 6.3 to 9.0 cm, broadly ovate or oblong-oval, dark green and shining above, pale and dull beneath. Fruits are present in a solitary, pedunculate, fleshy spike 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, 5 mm thick, ovoid, oblong, erect, blunt, blackish green in colour and shining. Odour is aromatic and the taste is pungent.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents of Piper Longum :
The fruits contain 1% volatile oil, resin, alkaloids piperine and piperlonguminine, a waxy alkaloid N-isobutyldeca-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide and a terpenoid substance. Roots contain piperine, piperiongumine or piplartine. Dihydrostigmasterol has been isolated.

Actions and Uses :
Antiallergic activity of the fruit has been studied. It effectively reduced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and protected guinea pigs against antigen-induced bronchospasm; a 30% protection of mast cells was observed in an in-vitro study. Both alcoholic extract and piplartine extracted from the stems showed significant inhibition of ciliary movements of oesophagus of frog. Neogi et al studied the pharmacology of piperine. Piperine decreased the rate and amplitude of respiration and showed nonspecific blockade of acetylcholine, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine induced spasm on isolated guinea pig and rabbit intestine. The oil of fruit has been found to possess significant paralytic action on the nerve-muscle pre- paration of A. lumbricoides. The hepatoprotective effect has been shown in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. A common use of the fruit is in the prevention of recurrent attacks of bronchial asthma. Another important indication is in chronic malaria. In a study of 240 children with a long term use of fruit 58.3% had decreased severity of attacks. In another study 20 children were studied for one year with the same treatment. Eleven had no recurrence. All patients had strongly positive skin test which became negative in 6 and decreased significantly in 12 after five weeks of treatment. Along with Piper nigrum and C. officinale it has been useful in viral hepatitis.

Piper longum is in widespread use for many centuries. The standard doses are well tolerated. No mortality was observed with the powder of the fruit boiled in milk and water administered orally to albino rats in a dose of 1 gm/kg. Acute toxicity studies with piperine, piperlongumine and piperlonguminine were carried out in mice, rat and dog with oral and intraperitoneal route. In mice, oral LD(50) was 56.2+8.0, 110.1+7.8 and 115.3+9.5 mg/kg with piperine, piper- lonigumine and piperlonguminine respectively.

Boswellia Serrata Ext.( Boswellic Acid Upto 95)

Boswellia Serrata Ext.( Boswellic Acid Upto 95)
Boswellia Serrata Ext.( Boswellic Acid Upto 95)

Common Name : Shallaki / Salai Guggal
Plant Parts Used : Bark, Gum

Description of Boswellia Serrata :
It is a deciduous medium-sized tree, with ash coloured, bark, peeling off in thin flakes. Young shoots and leaves pubescent. Leaves are long, opposite, sessile, variable in shape, ovate or lanceolate, crenate-serrate, obtuse, base acute and rounded. Flowers in auxiliary racemes, shorter than leaves. Calyx pubescent outside, lobes broadly triangular ovate. Petals long ovate. Drupe tringonous.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Salai Gugaal gum contains arabinose, galactose, xylose, diastatic enzymes galacturonic acid, digitoxose, rhamnose, the volatile oil obtained from gum oleo-resin contains œ-pinene, œ-phellandrene, sesquiterpene alcohols, anisaidehyde phenols. Aqueous fraction gave poly-saccharides A and B. Three triperpene acids, œ, ß and ÿ-boswellic acids have been reported. The anti inflammatory and anti arthritic properties are attributed to the presence of ß-boswellic acid and related triterpene acids.

Actions and Uses :
When tested on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and S-180 tumours transplanted in mice, it increased the life span of mice by 24% with ascites and decreased S-180 tumour by 24%. The essential oil of Boswellia Serrata was found to he anti-fungal. Anti-inflammatory activity and anti-bacterial activity of extracts have been demonstrated. The non-phenolic fraction of gum resin exhibited sedative and analgesic effects when tested in rats. The chemistry and pharma- cology of the gum has been reviewed.
It is used in rheumatic disorders. It is also used to improve appetite and in general weakness. It has an anti-diarrhoeal action. 
With the recommended doses side effects are uncommon. Occasionally patients may complain of heartburn or warmth of hands and feet.

Psyllium Husk Extract

Plant part used : seeds & seed husk of Plantago Ovata

Description : 
Seed Hard, transluscent, boat shaped structure, upto 8 mm long and 1 mm broad. Surface glossy and shining having a pinkish brown colour. There is an oval spot in the centre of convex(dorsal) surface. On the concave (ventral) surface. A deep furrow is seen with a hilum which appears as a red spot in the centre. Odour - nil: taste - mucilagenous.
Husk Thin, curved or boat shaped structure of papery texture, representing the seed coat. It measures upto 4 mm long and 1 mm broad at the broadest point. The material consists of a lot of broken pieces also. Odour - nil:taste - mucilagenous.

 
     
 

Phytoactive : 
The seeds contain mucilage (10 - 20%) as the major constituent, together with a fatty oil, protein, oxalic and mucic acids, invertase, emulsin and the glycosideaucubin.

The mucilage can be extracted from the seeds or seed coat with cold or boiling water, its composition depending on the method of preparation. It is composed of xylose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, the first being the principal sugar.

Directions for use : 
The seed is useful in gastric and duodenal ulcers. The husk has emollient and demulcent properties and is given in dysentary and diarrhoea. It is extensively used in laxative formulations.

Capsicum Annum Herbal Extract

Capsicum Annum Herbal Extract
Capsicum Annum Herbal Extract

Common Name : Lal Mirch / Red Chillies
Plant Parts Used : Fruit

Description of Capsicum Annum :
Leaves oblong, glabrous, flowers solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white to bluish white, very rarely violet, berries green, maturing in to yellow, orange to red grading into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, very variable in size up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in diam, shape and pungency, sometimes lobed, seeds white or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long placental connections.
 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The major constituent is Capsaicin. Other constituents are moisture - 10.0%; protein - 15.9%; fat-6.2%; fibre - 30.2 %; carbohydrates - 31.6 %; minerals - 6.1%, calcium - 160; vitamin C - 50 mg/100 g, etc.

Actions and Uses :
Capsaicin is shown to be a potent stressor agent and produces a rise in corticosterone level. When applied to human skin, capsaicin produces erythema and burning without blistering. Intragastrically, capsaicin promotes ulceration. Capsaicin at a dilution of 1 : 1,000 showed bacteriostatic activity against several organisms. Oleoresin red pepper - obtained from the longer, moderately pungent chillies chiefly used for flavouring. 
Since its introduction, the chilli has become the most popular spice and replaced black pepper to a very large extent. Capsicum wool, prepared by dissolving the oleoresin in ether and pouring it on absorbent cotton wool, is useful in rheumatoid affections. Capsicum tincture has been employed externally in the treatment of chilblains. Chilli, in small doses, is a powerful stimulant and carminative. It stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, and increases peristaltic movements and motility of stomach. It is an excellent remedy in atonic and flatulent dyspepsia and dipsomania. 

Pueraria Tuberosa Extract ( Vidari Kand)

Pueraria Tuberosa Extract ( Vidari Kand)
Pueraria Tuberosa Extract ( Vidari Kand)

Common Name : Siali / Dari
Plant Parts Used : Tubers

Description :
A large perennial climber with very large tuberous rots, distributed nearly throughout India, except in very humid or very arid regions, and ascending up to 1,200 m. Stems woody, up to 12 cm. in diam, leaves trifoliolate; flowers blue or purplish blue, in racemes 15 - 30 cm. long; pods flat, 5 - 7 cm. long; densely closed with long, silky, bristly brown hairs; seeds 3 - 6.

 
     
 

The tubers are large, 30 - 60 cm. long and 25 - 30 cm. broad, weighing up to 35 kg.

Actions and Uses of Pueraria Tuberosa :
The roots are said to be used in medicine as a demulcent and refrigent in fevers, as cataplasm for swelling of joints, and as lactagogue.

Cassia Angustifolia Vahl

Cassia Angustifolia Vahl
Cassia Angustifolia Vahl

Common Name : Senna 
Plant Parts Used : Pods and Leaves

Description of Cassia Angustifolia :
A small shrub, about 1 m in height with pale subterete or obtusely angled erect or ascending branches. Leaves usually 5-8 jugate, leaflets oval, lanceolate, glabrous. Racemes axillary erect, waxy many-flowered, usually considerably exceeding the subtending leaf. Bracts membranous, ovate or obovate, caducous. Sepals obtuse, cuncate compressed, cotyledons plane. The pods are 1.4 to 2.8 in long, about 0.8 in wide, greenish brown to dark brown in colour and contain 5-7 obovate dark brown and nearly smooth seeds.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Leaves contain glycosides, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C and sennoside D. Two naphthalene glycosides have been isolated frofn leaves and pods. Senna also contains the yellow flavonol colouring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin and isorhamnetin.

Actions and Uses :
Maximum cathartic action was seen in rats with 80 mg/kg in eight hours - due to direct stimulant activity and water and electrolyte secretions. Senna extract introduced into the lumen of the bowel through colostomy had no effect on the motility, though the same extract introduced with faeces or a culture of Escherichia coli stimulated peristalsis. Sublaxative doses of standardised senna fruit showed spasmolytic activity. Effective dose of piperazine for the treatment of threadworms and roundworms was substantially reduced by the addition of extract of senna. Water extract was found effective against Trichophyton purpurceum. Leaves and pods are used traditionally as purgatives, Topical use of the leaves for dermatosis is also not uncommon. Laxative effect of standardized senna fruit granules was compared with liquid paraffin or a mixture of liquid paraffin and magnesium hydroxide in fifty nursing mothers. Senna was more effective than the control treatment in overcoming puerpural constipation while the bowel habits of infants were not affected.
It is a safe laxative. It may cause griping for which the drug is to be used with ginger.

Santalum Album Linn

Common Name : Chandan / Sandalwood
Plant Parts Used : Wood and Volatile oil

Description of Santalum Album :
It is a small evergreen tree with slender drooping branches, the sapwood is white and odourless, the heartwood yellowish brown and strongly scented. Leaves elliptic lanceolate, sub- acute petioles 1-1.3 cm long slender, flowers brownish red, inodourous, in terminal and axillary cymes shorter than leaves. The fruit is a drupe.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Heartwood contains a volatile oil 2.5 to 6%, a dark resin and tannic acid. The constituents of the oil are santalol which is the principal constituent present to 90% or more. It is a mixture of two isomers known as œ-santalol and, ß-santalol (alpha-santalol and beta- santalol). The other components are aldehydes and ketones, such as isovaleric aldehyde, santonone, santalone, esters, free acids etc. Alpha- santalol and beta-santalol account for most of the odour of sandalwood oil.

Seeds yield 50 to 55% of a dark red viscid fixed oil containing stearolic acid and santalbic acid.

Actions and Uses :
The wood ground up with water into paste is commonly applied to local inflammations, to the temples in fevers, and in skin diseases, to allay heat and pruritus. It also acts as a daphoretie. In case of morbid thirst the powder of the wood is recommended to he drunk in coconut water. It is popularly used to treat urethral haemorrhage and kidney afflictions. Externally the oil is an excellent application in scabies in every stage and form.
The oil is irritating to mouse and rabbit skin. However, it has been approved for edible use. Santalol can cause dermatitis in sensitive individuals.

Cassia Fistula Linn

Common Name : Amaltas 
Plant Parts Used : Root bark, Root, Pulp, Leaves and Flowers

Description :
A medium sized deciduous tree, 6-9 meters tall with a straight trunk and spreading branches (Fig. 1). Stem bark is pale grey, smooth and slender when young and dark brown and rough when old. Leaves alternate 20-40 em long, paripinnate, long stalked stipulate petioles 6-9 mm long, leaflets 5-15 cm long, ovate, acute stalked. Flowers-large bright yellow in long axillary racemes. Fruit -a pod 30-60 cm long and over 30 cm thick.
 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves of Cassia fistula contain free rhein, glucoside and sennosides A and B. A butanol extract of the powdered stem bark contained tannins while the benzeme extract yielded lupeol, ß-sitosterol and hexacosanol. From the alcoholic extract of the pods an anthraquinone (fistulic acid) was obtained and identified as 1, 4-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxy, 2-methylanthraquinone-3-carboxylic Acid. Kaempferol and a proanthocyanidin have been isolated from the flowers and leucope-largonidin trimer from the bark.

Actions and Uses :
Anti-bacterial activity was found in the leaves, stem bark and fruit pulp, the last being the most potent. The ether extract of the pulp exhibited the maximum activity, and in vitro, the extract inhibited the growth of Staph aureus, Staph albus, B. megatherium, Sh. flexneri, Sh. shiga and S. typhi. The extract was found to be more potent than chloramphenicol. The ether extract of leaves also showed activity against Staph aurous and Staph albui. Alcohol and acetone extracts of stem bark were found active against Staph. aureuy, Staph. Album and B. inegathmum. The root buk was found to he inactive. In vitro, 100 mg of acetone extract of root and stem bark showed- antifungal action against T. tonsurans, T. rubrum and T. megnini and was more potent than 16g of griscofulyin. Two flavonoid glycoside fractions isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark also possessed marked antifungal activity against M. gypseum T. mentagrophytes T. rubrum and T. tonsurans. The plant has been shown to possess antiviral activity against Vaccinia and Newcastle disease viruses. The extracts inhibited the cytopathy of most viruses and also their replication in the cells of the host. The fruit pulp has laxative activity.

In a pilot study 542 patients with various types of dermatoses were treated with Cassia fistula bark prepared and administered according to the classical ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Clinical improvement, observed in these patients was encouraging. The same authors studied 30 patients of pyoderma (17 with folliculitis and 13 with impetigo) with topical use of the fraction isolated from the acetone extract of Cassia ffituu Organisms responsible for the lesions were coagulase-positive Staphylococci, haemolytic Streptococci and Klebsiella Majority of these organisms were resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, terramyein, and chloramphenicol. Lesions healed in 20 out of 30 patients within 6 to 13 days though marked improvement was observed after 2 to 5 days. The fruit pulp of amaltas is widely prescribed as a mild laxative for children.

The plant was well tolerated by a group of 542 patients with various types of dermatoses. Topical use also did not show any allergic manifestations. The plant is commonly prescribed, even for women and children.

Cassia Fistula Linn

Common Name : Ashoka
Plant Parts Used : Bark, Seeds, Flowers

Description :
Leaves are narrowly lanceolate 15-25 cms long, cork-like at the base and with a short petiole. Stipules are intra-petiolar and completely united. Flowers are fragrant. They are 7.5-10 cms across. Calyx is yellow to orange and finally red. Its stamens are 7 to 8. The filaments are filiform.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The bark contains tannin, catechol, sterol and organic calcium compounds. Its methanol fraction contains haematoxylene, tannin, and water-soluble glycoside. The latter has glucose, galactose and mannose as sugars.

Actions and Uses :
Oxytocie activity of the plant was seen in rat and human isolated uterine preparations. Estrogen-primed or gravid uterus was more sensitive to the action of the alcoholic extract. Pentolinium bitartrate completely blocked the oxytocic action. Seed extract is found effective against dermatophytic fungi. 

Its use in treatment of excessive uterine bleeding is extensive in India. The plant is used also in dysmenorrhoea and for depression in women. Bleeding from piles is reduced with the plant.
In the commonly used doses side effects are rare. Larger doses may cause constipation. The extract has cardiotonic action in frog and dog.

Citrus Aurantium Extract

Citrus Aurantium Extract
Citrus Aurantium Extract

Common Name : Orange
Plant Parts Used : Fruits

Description of Citrus Aurantium :
A medium sized thorny tree or a shrub with greenish white, glabrous young shoots and grayish brown bark; leaves foliolate, leaf-stalks broadly winged, the wing nearly as large as the blade, leaflet elliptic or ovate, acute or acuminate, obtuse; flowers white, large, very fragrant; fruit globose, bright yellow when ripe, rind of fruit very aromatic, pulp sour, bitter or austere; seeds many, yellow or cream coloured, smooth, slimy.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Pro-vitamin A and B1 peel contains hesperidin, isohesperidin, aurantiamarin, a crystalline acid, amorph. Resinous body; bitter principle mostly in the spongy portion. 

Actions and Uses :
The fruits are sour, bitter, astringent, thermogenic, laxative, appetizer, stomachic, digestive, anthelmintic and antiscorbutic, and are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta and kapha, cough, bronchitis, dyspepsia, nausea, flatulence, colic, helminthiasis, scabies and anaemia.

Senna Leaves ( Cassia Angustifolia) Dried Ext. 10

Senna Leaves ( Cassia Angustifolia) Dried Ext. 10
Senna Leaves ( Cassia Angustifolia) Dried Ext. 10

Common Name : Senna 
Plant Parts Used : Pods and Leaves

Description :
A small shrub, about 1 m in height with pale subterete or obtusely angled erect or ascending branches. Leaves usually 5-8 jugate, leaflets oval, lanceolate, glabrous. Racemes axillary erect, waxy many-flowered, usually considerably exceeding the subtending leaf. Bracts membranous, ovate or obovate, caducous. Sepals obtuse, cuncate compressed, cotyledons plane. The pods are 1.4 to 2.8 in long, about 0.8 in wide, greenish brown to dark brown in colour and contain 5-7 obovate dark brown and nearly smooth seeds.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Leaves contain glycosides, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C and sennoside D. Two naphthalene glycosides have been isolated frofn leaves and pods. Senna also contains the yellow flavonol colouring matter kaempferol, its glucoside kaempferin and isorhamnetin.

Actions and Uses :
Maximum cathartic action was seen in rats with 80 mg/kg in eight hours - due to direct stimulant activity and water and electrolyte secretions. Senna extract introduced into the lumen of the bowel through colostomy had no effect on the motility, though the same extract introduced with faeces or a culture of Escherichia coli stimulated peristalsis. Sublaxative doses of standardised senna fruit showed spasmolytic activity. Effective dose of piperazine for the treatment of threadworms and roundworms was substantially reduced by the addition of extract of senna. Water extract was found effective against Trichophyton purpurceum. Leaves and pods are used traditionally as purgatives, Topical use of the leaves for dermatosis is also not uncommon. Laxative effect of standardized senna fruit granules was compared with liquid paraffin or a mixture of liquid paraffin and magnesium hydroxide in fifty nursing mothers. Senna was more effective than the control treatment in overcoming puerpural constipation while the bowel habits of infants were not affected.
It is a safe laxative. It may cause griping for which the drug is to be used with ginger.

Citrus Medica Linn

Common Name : Bara Nimbu / Citron
Plant Parts Used : Root, Flowers, Fruit, Juice Seed

Description of Citrus Medica :
Shrubs or trees are perennial. Leaflets 7.5 - 15 cm. long, oblong, glabrous. Petiole short marginated. Flowers numerous, raceme white or often tinged with pink frequently uni-sexual. Fruit, large oblong or obovoid and rind usually whorled and thick, known as hesperidium.
 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The peel contains citroflavonoids consisting of a mixture of hesperidoside (rhamnoglucoside of hesperetol), naringoside and ecryodietyoside (flavonones). Essential oils and Vitamin C are also found. Glucosides hesperidin (Vitamin P) and rutin are also present. Some varieties contain the flavonoid naringin. The triterpenoids e.g. limonin gives the intensely bitter taste to some citrus species.

Actions and Uses :
Citroflavonoids control the permeability of the capillaries by decreasing the porosity of the walls and thus enhancing the exchange of liquids and the diffusion of proteins. The mechanism for this phenomenon is complex,and includes the protective action of diphenols on catecholamines participating in vascular integrity. When capillary resistance is lessened citroflavonoids can prevent bleeding in hypertensive or diabetic patients (diabetic retinopathy) or in purpura, and where there is tendency to haematoma. The citroflavonoids also have an anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and diuretic action and can cause dilatation of the coronaries.

Due to their effect on capillary permeability they are used in modern medical practice in diseases where permeability is increased (varicose veins, haemorrhoids, capillaritis) and in oedema, and ascitis in cirrhosis. They also prevent excessive bleeding.

In ayurvedic practice, the dried rind or citrus juice is used in kapha and vata diseases, as a vermifuge, for asthma and digestive disorders, as an anti-scorbutic. It is used to counteract nausea and to increase appetite. 
No untoward reactions have been reported with the standard doses of the formulations. 

Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)

Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)
Asparagus Racemosus Extract ( Shatawari)

Common Name : Shatavari
Plant Parts Used : Roots and Leaves

Description :
The plant is a climber growing to 1-2 m in length. The leaves are like pine-needles, small and uniform. The inflorescence has tiny white flowers, in small spikes. The roots are finger-like, and clustered.
 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Saponins are present in all species of Asparagus. In a comparative study, various members belonging to this plant species, including A. racemosus, have been investigated for the presence of alkaloids, proteins, starch and tannin. Chemically, the variants from the southern part of India differed from the ones obtained from northern India, in having the A, fraction of the Asparagus glycosides. This fraction was absent in the North Indian species. Mucilage is also present in roots. Diosgenin was shown to occur in A. Racemosus leaves.

Actions and Uses :
The plant's action as a galactogogue has been reported. In a study by Sahnis et al it was shown that in the estrogen-primed rats A. racemosus could cause both increase in the weight of mammary lobulo-alycolar tissue and the milk yield. It was attributed to the action of released corticosteroids or an increase in prolactin. Gaitonde and Jethmalani have observed antioxytocic and anti- ADH activity in the saponin fractions isolated from the roots of A. racemosus.
In a recent study by Sharma et al. Shatavari was shown to possess anabolic properties viz. growth promotion. The authors also consider the plant as an adaptogenic substance.
The plant has been used in ayurveda for various conditions. Its main use has been as a galactogogue (Stanya) to increase milk secretion during lactation. Bhavmishra mentions this use particularly. It is also used as a general tonic, and as an aphrodisiac. 

In the doses of the root powder used clinically no adverse reactions have been reported. The bark of the plant is reported to be toxic. 

 

Commiphora Mukul Extract ( Gugul Sterones Upto 3)

Commiphora Mukul Extract ( Gugul Sterones Upto 3)
Commiphora Mukul Extract ( Gugul Sterones Upto 3)

Common Name : Guggul
Plant Parts Used : Gum resin, Stem, Leaf

Description of Commiphora Mukul :
A woody shrub to a small tree, with spirally ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate, leaflets sessile to subsessile, terminal ones largest, rhomboid to ovate in shape, irregularly toothed argin. Flowers small, brown to pink, unisexual. Calyx shows glandular hairs, forming cylindrical cap; Petals 4-5 times as long as sepal. Stigma 8-10, stigma, inconspicuously bilobed. Fruit-drupe, red, ovate, accuminate in shape, with 2-celled store, rarely 4 valved.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The olcoresin contains 0.37% essential oil containing mainly myrecene, dimyrecene, and polymyrecene. Alcohol extraction gives a soluble resin and an insoluble carbohydrate gum. Solvent extraction, hydrolysis and column chromatography over silica gel of guggul resin identifies a number of compounds -a diterpene hydrocarbon, a diterpene alcohol, Z-guggulsterone E-guggul- sterone, guggulsterol-I gugguisterol-II and guggulsterol-III Cholesterol, sesamin and camphorene are also found. The anti inflammatory and hypolipidaemic fractions have been isolated.

 

No significant side effects are reported. Mild burning in epigastrium and mild diarrhoea have been found on administration of higher doses. The phase 1 studies in volunteers were carried out with large doses.


Disclaimer : The statements here are suggestions and we do not offer any medical advice. You should always consult your doctor or any qualified medical practitioner before buying any of our products.

Acacia Concinna ( Shikakai) Extract

Acacia Concinna ( Shikakai) Extract
Acacia Concinna ( Shikakai) Extract

Common Name : Shikakai
Plant Parts Used : Bark, Leaves, Pods

Description of Acacia Concinna :
A common, prickly, scandent shrub, occuring in tropical jungles throughout India, especially in the Deccan. Leaves bipinnate; flowers in yellow, globose, anxillary heads; pods brown, wrinkled and notched when dry; seeds 6-10 in a pod.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The bark contains saponin, which on hydrolysis yields lupeol, (-spinasterol and acacic acid lactone. The sugars identified are glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. It also contains hexacosanol and (- spinasterone. The saponin of bark shows spermicidal activity against human semen (Banerji and Nigam, J Indian chem Soc., 1980, 57, 1043; Banerji et al, Indian Drugs, 1979 - 80, 17,6). The tender leaves, which are acidic, are used in chutneys. The leaves contain oxalic, tartaric, citric, succinic and ascorbic acids. They also contain two alkaloids calyctomine (C12H17O3N, m.p. 138-140oC) and nicotine, besides rutin and an enzyme tartaric racimase. A new triterpenoid saponin (C36H48O5, m.p. 295oC) having the basic skeleton of oleanolic acid. 

Other constituents present in the leaves are tannins, amino acids and proteins (Gupta & Nigam, Planta med, 1970-71,19,55).

Actions and Uses :
An infusion of the leaves is used in malarial fever. A decoction of the pods relieves biliousness and acts as a purgative. It is used to remove dandruff. An ointment, prepared from the ground pods, is good for skin diseases. The pods, known as Shikai or Shikakai, are extensively used as an detergent, and the dry ones are powdered and perfumed, and sold in the market as soapnut powder. The pods are reported to be used in north Bengal for poisoning fish. [Nathawat and Deshpande, loc. Cit.; Nadkarni, I, 16; Bhatnagar et al, J Res Indian Med, 1973, 8(2), 67].

Eclipta Alba Extract ( Bhringraj)

Eclipta Alba Extract ( Bhringraj)
Eclipta Alba Extract  ( Bhringraj)

Common Name : Bhangra
Plant Parts Used : Seeds, Juice of leaves, Herb, Oil

Description :
This annual herb has a short, flat or round stem, deep brown in colour. Serrate leaves are opposite and sessile to subsessile. Small penny-size flowers, white in colour are on a long stalk.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
Reducing sugars and sterols have been detected. From leaves and stems, wedelolactone has been isolated in crystalline form. Stigmasterol and L-terthienyl methanol have been identified. ß-amyrin and 7-desmethyl wedelolactone- 7 - glucoside have also been isolated. Wedelic acid, apigenin, luteolin and the glucosides of the latter two have been isolated.

Actions and Uses :
Eclipta alba protected guinea pigs against the mortality induced by Carbon Tetrachloride - liver damage. In the control group 77.7% animals died wheras in E. alba-treated group only 22.3% died within 24 hours. Serum transaminases were also significantly lower in the treated group. Histopathology of liver also showed a reduction in parenchymal damage. There were similar findings in rabbits too. Only with fairly large doses in vitro the extract of E. alba showed negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. The alcoholic extract of the plant has shown antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease virus. Tranquilising action has been shown.

For healthy black and long hair the plant is commonly used in hair oil all over India. The fresh juice of leaves is used for increasing appetite, improving digestion and as a mild bowel regulator. It is commonly used in viral hepatitis to promote bile flow and protect the parenchyma. It is popularly used to enhance memory and learning. The plant has a reputation as an antiaging agent in ayurveda. It is also used as a general tonic for debility. Externally it is used for inflammation, minor cuts and burns and the fresh leaf-juice is considered very effective in stopping bleeding. Leaf juice mixed with honey is also used for children with upper respiratory infection. It is used in eye and ear infections.
In the doses and formulations commonly used no adverse reactions have been reported. Only with large doses of the aqueous extract in animals a cardiodepressant effect was observed.

Rock Mineral ( Shilajeet Ext.)

Rock Mineral ( Shilajeet Ext.)
Rock Mineral ( Shilajeet Ext.)

Common Name : Shilajit, Shilajit Mumiyo

Description :
Shilajeet is also known as Mineral Pitch or Black Asphaltum, is a rich sourve of natural occurring minerals. Shilajeet has been widely used in india, Tibet, China, Pakistan, Middle Eastern Countries and Russia for common ailments to tonify the immune system. In Ayurveda, Shilajeet is considered as an Aphrodisiac,tonic for kidneys and general support for the immune system. Shilajit is procured from the himalayan mountains during summer time and is purified by applying ayurvedic principle and then extracted with unique methods to keep all its actives intact.

Embelia Ribes Burm

Common Name : Vidanga
Plant Parts Used : Berries (fruit) leaves, Root-bark

Description :
This climbing shrub, has to be differentially identified from Embelia tsjeriam-cottam. The roots are brownish gray, with hairy reddish rootiets. The stem is whitish gray, studded with lenticels, with a mature girth of 45-72 cms. Leaves are coriaceous, elliptic, lanceolate 6-14 cms long and 2-4 cms broad, alternating, acuminate entire, perfectly glabrous and petiole 1.0 cm - 0.8 cm margined. Midrib prominent, inflorescence panicles 15-60 cms in length, upper panicles often 7.5-10 cm pubescent. Flowers pentamerous, minute, white or yellow. Fruit A berry, 2.4-4 mm obovate to subglobular tipped with style, smooth, succulent, in dry condition with wrinkles with loss of calyx.

 
     
 

Characteristics and Constituents :
The main active component in the plant extract is Embelin (Embelic acid : 2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1, 4-Benzoquinone. Other components are christembeline, an alkaloid and a resinoid and volatile oil. Embeline reacts quantitatively with formaldehyde to give vidangin, methylene-bis-2-5-dihydroxy-4-undecyl-3-6-benzoquinones. Quercitol and fatty ingredients are also found.

Actions and Uses :
Studies on this plant can be described under three acreas - its antifertility effect, antioestrogenic action and as a anthelmintic agent. The powdered fruit administered orally to female rats in different doses prolonged the oestrus phase of the oestrous cycle and inhibited the fertility in 60% animals. Petroleum and methanol extracts prevented pregnancy by influencing the oestrous cycle in 75% of the test females. Benzene extract had a 51% antifertility efficacy and chloroform extract 37%. Purified embelin, isolated from the plant showed no anti-fertility effect. Anti-implantation effect was seen 100% in albino rats given 10 mg/kg embelin, and also in rabbits. Its anti-fertility effect has been postulated due to different physiological mechanisms 10,11 some terming it a promising oral contraceptive too. Its antioestrogenic effect has been suggested experimentally. Experimental study on its anthelmintic action traditionally postulated, is reported. Alcoholic extract was stated to be effective in 80% infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is used mainly in helminthiasis, and antifungal agent in ringworm, and in other chronic dermatoses. It is also given, boiled in milk, to infants as a digestive and against recurrent upper respiratory infections.
In an oral dose up to 3 /kg body weight embelin did not show lethal effect in rats and mice. Ten weeks' exposure to embelin (10 mg/kg body weight) showed no significant changes in the histology of heart, liver, kidney, adrenals and spleen in rodents. The haemograms were also normal. With the routine clinical doses no side effects have been reported.

Tamarindus Indica Extract ( Tamarindus Officinalis)

Tamarindus Indica Extract ( Tamarindus Officinalis)
Tamarindus Indica Extract ( Tamarindus Officinalis)

Common Name : Imli
Plant Parts Used : Fruit

Description of Tamarindus Indica :
A moderate - sized to large, evergreen tree, up to 24 m. in height and 7 m. in girth, but generally smaller, cultivated or found naturalized almost throughout the plains and sub-Himalayan tracts of India, particularly in the South. Bark brownish or dark grey, longitudinally and horizontally fissured; leaves paripinnate, up to 15 cm. long: leaflets generally 10 - 20 pairs, subsessile, oblong, 8 - 30mm. X 5 - 10 mm; 

 
     
 
flowers small, yellowish with pink stripes, in lax, few - flowered racemes at the ends of the branchlets; pods 7.5 - 20.0 cm. long, c. 2.5 cm. broad and 1.0 cm. thick, more or less constricted between the seeds, slightly curved, brownish - ash - coloured, scurfy; seeds 3 - 12, obovate - oblong, compressed, with a shallow, oblong pit on each side of the flat faces, c. 1.5 X 0.8 cm. smooth, dark brown, shining. The seeds are contained in loculi, enveloped by a tough, leathery membrane, the socalled endocarp. Outside the endocarp is the light brownish, red, sweetish acidic, edible pulp, traversed by a number of branched, ligneous strands. The outermost covering of the pod is fragile and easily separable.
Characteristics and Constituents :

The pulp contains : moisture, 20:9; protein, 3:1; fat, 0.1; fibre, 5.6; other carbohydrates, 67.4; and minerals, 2.9 %; calcium,170 phosporous, 110; and iron, 10.9 mg/100g. Its vitamin contents are as follows : riboflavin, 0.07; niacin, 0.7; and vitamin C, 3.0 mg./100 g.; carotene,60 (g./100g. Tartaric acid (8-18 %) and invert sugars (30-40 %) are the most important constituents of the pulp. Of the invert sugars, 70 per cent is glucose and 30 per cent fructose. Pectins and pentosans are also present (Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, 85; Chem.Abstr., 1944, 38,3740; 1948, 42, 4648; Damodaran and Rangachari, J. sci. indust. Res.,1945-46, 4,298; Savur and Sreenivasan, ibid.,1946,5B,41).

Actions and Uses :
An infusion of the leaves is said to be cooling and useful in bilious fever. A poultice of the fresh leaves is applied to swellings and boils, and for relieving pain, and that of the flowers in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. The bark is astringent and is given in diarrhoea; in lotions and poultices, it is also applied to sores and boils. In some countries, the bark is reported to be prescribed in asthma, amenorrhoea, and as a tonic and febrifuge (Kirt & Basu, II, 887-90; Burkill, II, 2123; Quisumbing, 426). The leaves have been found to contain the glycosides vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin, which are, however, absent from the bark. The alkaloid, hordenine, has been reported in the bark. The leaves yield a reddish - yellow dye, reported to be used locally in colouring woollen and silk fabrics. The leaves and flowers are also used as auxillaries in dyeing. The bark contains about seven per cent tannin and is reported to be used in tanning. The presence of a proanthocyanidin (C45H38O16) in the bark and heartwood has been reported (Bhatia et al.,Phytochemistry, 1966, 5, 177; Bhatia et al., Indian J.Chem., 1969, 7, 123; White, N.Z.J. Sci., 1969, 12, 171; Thorpe, XI, 389; Dastur, Useful Plants, 202).N.A.

Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)

Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)
Ocimum Sanctum Extract ( Tulsi)

Common Name : Tulsi
Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Seeds and Root

Description :
The plant, is a shrub reaching a height of 0.5 to 1.5 m. The leaves are 
2-4 cms in length. There are several varieties of the plant. However, commonly used one is with dark leaves. The inflorescence is a long spike with tiny purple flowers.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The leaves contain an essential oil which has been studied with gas chromatography. The oil contains eugenol, eugenal, carvacrol, methyl-chavicol, limatrol and caryophylline.

The seeds contain an oil composed of fatty acids and sitosterol. The mucilage is compared of sugars - xylose and polysaccharides.

Actions and Uses :
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil has been shown against M. tuberculosis and Staph aureus in vitro and other bacteria and fungi. Eugenol and methyleugenol showed a positive activity. Adaptogenic (antistress) activity has been found in mice and rats. The plant increased the physical endurance and prevented stress-induced ulcers. In general pharmacology the aqueous extract showed hypotensive activity and inhibited the smooth muscle contraction induced by acetylcholine, carbachol and histamine. It also potentiated the hexobarbitone sleeping time. Protective action against histamine-induced bronchospasm has been shown in animals.

A tea prepared with the leaves of Tulsi is commonly used in cough,cold,mild indigestion, diminished appetite and malaise. The solid extract of Tulsi, in a dose of 500 mg x 3 for one week, significantly relieved the breathlessness in 20 patients with tropical eosinophilia. There was however no reduction in the eosinophil count in peripheral blood. It is commonly used with black pepper in bronchial asthma. An oil exlacted from Tulsi is used as drops in ear infections. Fungal and bacterial infections of skin are treated with Tulsi juice. The seeds are used as a general tonic. 

The fresh leaves are taken as prasad by millions of Indians for many years. The powdered leaves, 5-27 g per day were taken by 120 patients for 3 months. The only side effect was constipation. In animals, with large dose of an extract, antispermatogenic activity has been shown.

Emblica Officinalis Fruit Extract

Emblica Officinalis Fruit Extract
Emblica Officinalis Fruit Extract

Common Name : Amla
Plant Parts Used : Fruit

Description of Emblica Officinalis :
A medium to large deciduous tree with small leaves, which are closely set in pinnate passion. Leaves simple, a hundred or more on each branchlets in a symmetrically distichous manner, linear oblong or linear elliptic, slightly recurved, entire, obtuse of rounded at base, apex sub-acute or apiculate, glabrous, light green above, paler and at times puberulous beneath. The fruit is nearly spherical or globular, slightly broader than long, and with small, shallow, conical depressions at either end of its longitudinal axis, especially at the place of attachment of the stalk. Its size varies according to the variety. Normally the fruit is 18 to 25 mm wide at the middle and 15 to 20 mm along the longitudinal axis. Fruits depressed - globose, succulent, yellow or pink when ripe, obscurely 6-lobed.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The major constituents is Vitamin C. It content up to 720 mg / 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg / 100 cc of pressed juice, has been recorded. The fruit is probable the richest natural source of vitamin C. The other constituents are Enzymes, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid, etc.

Actions and Uses :
The fruit is used as a Diuretic, Laxative, Hair dyes, Detergent, Shampo. It is also used as a Cardioprotective, useful in hemorrhage, menprrhagia, leucorrhoea, discharge of blood from uterus. Poultice used to stop bleeding from cuts. The fermented fruit liquor, it is used in jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, indigestion, anemia, heart complaints, promotion of urination. The emblica officinalis juice with Lemon, it is used to arrest acute bacillary dysentery.

Fenugreek (Methi) Herbal Extracts

Fenugreek (Methi) Herbal Extracts
Fenugreek (Methi) Herbal Extracts

Common Name : Methi / fenugreek
Plant Parts Used : Seeds, Leaves, Entire plant

Description :
Trigonella foenum-graecum has long stalked leaves up to 5 cm long stipules triangular, lanceolate, leaflets about 2.5 cms long, obovate to obanceolate. Flowers 1-2, axillary, sessile, racemed, whitish or lemon yellow. Pod 5.7 cms long with a persistent beak, hairy with 10-20 seeds.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The plant contains a number of steroidal sapogenins, specially diosgenin found in the oily embryo. Two furastanol glycosides, F-ring opened precursors of diosgenin have been reported, as also hederagin glycosides. The alkaloid trigonelline, trigocoumarin, trimethyl coumarin and nicotinic acid are also present. Mucilage is a prominent constituent of the seeds.

Actions and Uses :
This plant has been mentioned in early literature as a hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory agent. Its effect as an oral hypoglycemic has been evaluated. In rats trigonelline counteracts the hyperglycemic effect of cortisone given 2 hours before or simultaneously. Antiulcer property has been studied in rats. Hypocholesterolemic effects, and anti-inflammatory effects have been observed. The ether extract of the seeds had an effect on inflammation induced in rats by cotton - pellet insertion, or formalin or carrageenin exposure, comparable to that of salicylates.

The antiarthritic property of methi seed powder is widely known in many parts of India. It forms an important medicinal use of the plant in rheumatic disorders and spondylosis. The drug is also used for chronic bronchitis and hepato and splenomegaly in the unani system of medicine. The seeds and leaves are also used in obesity.

In the doses clinically used, the plant has shown no adverse reactions.

Turmeric Extract

Common Name : Haldi / turmeric
Plant Parts Used : Rhizome

Description :
It is a tall herb with large root stocks and consists of rhizomes which are ovate, oblong or pyriform and often short-branched. Rhizome may be 2 to 6 em long and 1 to 1.7 cm thick. Leaves very large, in tufts upto 1.2 ft. Flowers in autumnal spikes 10 to 15 cm long. The plant is a native of Southern Asia and is cultivated throughout the warmer parts of the world. It is grown on a large scale in India, China and East Indies.
 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The yellow pigmented fraction, isolated from the rhizomes, contains the curcumins belonging to the dicinnamoyl- methane group. An aromatic oil, turmeric oil, composed of terpene- hydrocarbon-derivatives and sesquiterpenic ketones has also been isolated.

Actions and Uses :
Water extract of turmeric showed significant anti- inflammatory activity in acute carrageenin-induced oedema. LD(50) was 4.7 mg/kg body weight. In the subacute models LD(50), was 10 to 20 mg/kg. Anti-inflaininatory activity of the active principle curcumin was similar to cortisone and phenyl-butazone in carrageenin-induced oedema in rats with an equivalent dose. Stabilizing effect on lysosomal membranes also has been reported. Sodium curcuminate in a dilution of 1 in 1 million inhibited Micrococcus pyogenesge. Sodium curcuminate increased the bile secretion by 100% in anaesthetized dogs. Hepatoprotective effect of 50% ethanol extract of Curmma 1..g. was shown in CCL,-induced liver lesions in mice and in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Application of turmeric powder over septic as well as aseptic wounds in rats and rabbits accelerated the process of healing to the extent of 23-24% in both the cases. 

No side effects were observed with curcumin in a dose of 1200 mg/day for two weeks in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. No significant change in blood pressure, haemoglobin, hepatic function tests and renal function tests were observed in these patients. Mild dryness of the mouth and throat was complained of by a few patients of bronchial asthma treated with turmeric powder in a dose of 12 gm/day. This symptom was controlled with a reduction in the dose. Curcumin in a dose of 1800 mg/kg/day p.o. ninety days in rats and 800 mg/kg/day p.o. for similar period in monkeys was found to he safe. No evidence of skeletal or visceral malformations was observed in mice with 1600 mg/kg and in rabbits with 600 mg/ kg on days 6-15 post coitus.

Garcinia Extract

Common Name : Vilati - Amli 
Plant Parts Used : Rind of fruit

Characteristics and Constituents :
The garcinia plant contains acids tartaric, citric and phosporic.Two isopreylated benzophene derivatives-camboginal and cambogin- isolated from latex and structure of cambogin proposed. The latex of Garcinia cambogia contains two polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives, camboginol (I) and cambogin (II).
 
     
 

Actions and Uses :
HCA has a quality to burn fat.

Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)

Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)
Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)
Common Name : Valerian
Plant Parts Used : Root

 

Description of Valeriana Officinalis :
The roots tend to merge into a short, conical root-stock or erect rhizome, the development of which often proceeds for several years before a flowering stem is sent up, but slender horizontal branches which terminate in buds are given off earlier, and from these buds proceed aerial shoots or stolons, which produce fresh plants where they take root. Only one stem arises from the root, which attains a height of 3 or 4 feet. It is round, but grooved and hollow, more or less hairy, especially near the base. It terminates in two or more pairs of flowering stems, each pair being placed at right angles to those above and below it. The lower flowering stems lengthen so as to place their flowers nearly or often quite on a level with the flowers borne by the upper branches, forminga broad and flattened cluster at the summit, called a cyme. The leaves are arranged in pairs and are united at their bases.

 
     
 
Each leaf if made up of a series of lance-shaped segments, more or less opposite to one another on each side of the leaf (pinnate). The leaflets vary very much in number, from six to ten pairs as a rule, and vary also in breadth, being broad when few in number and narrower when more numberous; they are usually 2 to 3 inches long. The margins are indented by a few coarsely-cut teeth. The upper surfaces is strongly viened, the under surface is paler and frequently more or less covered with short, soft hairs. The leaves on the stem are attached by short, broad sheaths, the radical leaves are larger and long-stemmed and the margins more toothed.

The flowers are in bloom from June to September. They are small, tinged with pink and flesh colour, with a somewhat peculiar, but not exactly unpleasant smell. The corolla is tubular, and from the midst of its lobes rise the stamens, only three in number, though there are five lobes to the corolla. The limb of the calyx is remarkable for being at first inrolled and afterwards expanding in the form of a feathery pappus, which aids the dissemination of the fruit. The fruit is a capsule containing one among expressed seed. Apart from the flowers, the whole plant has a foetid smell, much actuated when brused.
Although more often growing is damp situation, Valerian is also met new on dry, elevated ground. It is found throughout Britain, but in the northern countries more often found on higher and dryer ground - dry healths and hilly pastures - than in the south, and then is usually smaller, are more than 2 feet high, with narrow less and hairy, and is often named sylvesis. The medicinal qualities of this form are considered to be especially strong.

 

Disclaimer : The statements here are suggestions and we do not offer any medical advice. You should always consult your doctor or any qualified medical practitioner before buying any of our products.
 

Garlic Extract

Common Name : Lahsun / Garlic
Plant Parts Used : Buibils or Cloves

Description :
It is a small plant. The leaves are green, slender, flat and elongated. The stem is smooth and solid. The bulbs are composed of several bulbils (cloves), encased in white or pink skin of the parent bulb. The inflorescence is an umbel initially enclosed in a spathe.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The strong smelling juice of the bulbs contain a mixture of aliphatic mono and polysulphides. The chief constituent is allicin, diallyl disulphide oxide. The latter results from spontaneous enzymatic reduction of allin and 5-allylcystine sulphamide. Thio - glycoside, aminoacids, fatty acids, flavonols, vitamins, trace elements, volatile oils etc. have also been demonstrateds.

Actions and Uses :
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of garlic has been shown, by several investigators, against many common patho - genic organisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Escheiichia coli, Candida albicans, Shigelia sonnei Salmonella typhi. Essential oils of garlic prevented an increase in a -Iipoproteins, pre- a lipoproteins occurring after cholesterol-feeding in rabbits. Fibrinolytic activity was also significantly increased.Inhibition of platelet-aggregation in vitro and in vivo has also been demonstrated with garlic. There have been several studies showing the hypoglycaemic activity of garlic and allicin in animals.

The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastro- intestinal disorders was studied in 29 patients. A significant carminative effect,with a relief of nausea,gascolic,flatulence, belching and heaviness was observed. The effects of fried and raw garlic on blood showed an increase in fibrinolytic activity in 20 patients with ischaemic heart disease. A decrease in triglycerides and cholesterol has been observed. Garlic oil drops are put in the ears for infection and earache. Garlic is also used as an anti infective agent topically and in other inter current infections.

Garlic as a food item has been used for thousands of years by millions of people all over the world. Prolonged chronic feeding of large amounts of garlic powder (350 mg/kg) showed severe testicular lesions after 70 days and arrest in spermatogenesis the dose being equivalent to 20 g (freeze-dried) garlic powder in a 60 kg man. Occupational exposure to garlic leading to asthma and contact dermatitis have been reported.

Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)

Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)
Valeriana Officinalis (Bulgarian)

Common Name : Valerian
Plant Parts Used : Root

 

Description of Valeriana Officinalis :
The roots tend to merge into a short, conical root-stock or erect rhizome, the development of which often proceeds for several years before a flowering stem is sent up, but slender horizontal branches which terminate in buds are given off earlier, and from these buds proceed aerial shoots or stolons, which produce fresh plants where they take root. Only one stem arises from the root, which attains a height of 3 or 4 feet. It is round, but grooved and hollow, more or less hairy, especially near the base. It terminates in two or more pairs of flowering stems, each pair being placed at right angles to those above and below it. The lower flowering stems lengthen so as to place their flowers nearly or often quite on a level with the flowers borne by the upper branches, forminga broad and flattened cluster at the summit, called a cyme. The leaves are arranged in pairs and are united at their bases.


Disclaimer : The statements here are suggestions and we do not offer any medical advice. You should always consult your doctor or any qualified medical practitioner before buying any of our products.

Green Tea Extract

Common Name : Green Tea
Plant Parts Used : Leaves

Description :
The leaves of Camellia Senesis are small of length 5.5 - 6.1 cm by width 2.2 - 2.4 cm and the trunk of the tree is the bush type. The cultivars of this type can survive in winter as cold as -12'C and are cultivated in the temperate regions.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The major constituent is Polyphenols. The other constituents are carotene, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid kaempferol, quercetin, theophylline, theobromine xanthine, hypoxanthine, adenine, gums, dextrins and inositol.

Actions and Uses :
There is a growing body of evidence that green tea and the polyphenols therein, possess inhibitory effects against cancer and act as powerful antioxidants. Polyphenols with their natural antioxidant ability are widely used for the prevention of oxidation of edible oils or discoloration of reddish color in foods.

Withania Somnifera Root Extract ( Alkaloids 2.5)

Withania Somnifera Root Extract ( Alkaloids 2.5)
Withania Somnifera Root Extract ( Alkaloids 2.5)

Common Name : Ashwagandha
Plant Parts Used : Roots, Leaves and Seeds

Description of Withania Somnifera :
A branched erect shrub, 0.3-1.5 m. Leaves 5-10 x 2.5-5 cm and ovate. Flowers greenish or lurid yellow, about 5 together in an umbellate cyme.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The roots contain choline, tropanol, pseudotropanol, cuscohygrene, 3-tigloyloxytropane, isopelletierine, anaferine and anahygrine. Withasomnine also has been isolated from the roots. The roots also have been reported to contain withaferin A and several other steroidal lactones including pharmacologically active with- anolides. These were also isolated as minor constituents of the leaves.

Actions and Uses :
Acetone soluble alkaloid fraction of the roots showed C.N.S. depressant effect in dogs, albino rats and mice. Convulsions produced by metrazol were exacerbated in rats but the animals were protected against supraorbital electroshock seizures. It produced hypnosis in mice. Potentiation of barbiturate, ethanol and urethane- induced hypnosis were observed in mice.

Increase in 5 HT and depletion of calcium was also observed. Alcoholic extract potentiated thiopental-induced sleep in albino mice. It was not effective in antagonizing rnetrazol and strychnine induced convulsions and mortality7. The functional activity of normal human T lymphocytcs as assessed by local xenogenic graft via host reaction was also affected by withanolide and withaferine. Withaferine affects both T and B lymphoeytes. Adaptogenic antistress action of pi ant extract from defatted seeds was shown by the increase in duration of sleeping time, and prevention of the reduction of ascorbic acid and cortisol contents of adrenals in mice significantly in comparison with controls. Significant protection against aspirin and stress-induced ulcers was also observed in rats. A dose of 60 mglkg for three days showed 50% inhibition of milk-induced leucocytosis in albino rats. 

The effect of Ashwagandharishta-medicated wine prepared from the roots of Withania somnifera was studied in 30 patients with anxiety neurosis. Moderate improvement in palpitation, tremors, headache, anorexia, lack of concentration, dyspepsia, fatigue and irritability was observed, while maximum improvement was seen in nervousness with 49 ml of Ashwagandharishta administered in two divided doses for one month. Root powder was studied in 46 patients of rheumatoid arthritis with a dose of 4, 6 or 9 gm/day for a period of 3 to 4 weeks. Pain and swelling disappeared completely in 14 patients; considerable improvement was observed in 10 patients and 11 patients showed mild improvement. There

was no relief in 4 patients and 7 patients discontinued the treatments.
Root powder in a dose of 9 gm/day in divided doses used for 3 to 4 weeks in patients with arthritis was well tolerated. No side effects were observed with Ashwagandharishta in a dose of 40 ml/day in two divided doses given for a month to thirty patients with anxiety neurosis. In acute toxicity studies LD, 0 of the alcoholic extract of seeds was 1750 141 mg (P. O.) in albino mice.

Guggul Extract

Common Name : Guggul
Plant Parts Used : Gum resin, Stem, Leaf

Description :
A woody shrub to a small tree, with spirally ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate, leaflets sessile to subsessile, terminal ones largest, rhomboid to ovate in shape, irregularly toothed argin. Flowers small, brown to pink, unisexual. Calyx shows glandular hairs, forming cylindrical cap; Petals 4-5 times as long as sepal. Stigma 8-10, stigma, inconspicuously bilobed. Fruit-drupe, red, ovate, accuminate in shape, with 2-celled store, rarely 4 valved.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The olcoresin contains 0.37% essential oil containing mainly myrecene, dimyrecene, and polymyrecene. Alcohol extraction gives a soluble resin and an insoluble carbohydrate gum. Solvent extraction, hydrolysis and column chromatography over silica gel of guggul resin identifies a number of compounds -a diterpene hydrocarbon, a diterpene alcohol, Z-guggulsterone E-guggul- sterone, guggulsterol-I gugguisterol-II and guggulsterol-III Cholesterol, sesamin and camphorene are also found. The anti inflammatory and hypolipidaemic fractions have been isolated.
Disclaimer : The statements here are suggestions and we do not offer any medical advice. You should always consult your doctor or any qualified medical practitioner before buying any of our products.

Zingiber Officinalis Dry ( Adarak) Extract

Zingiber Officinalis Dry ( Adarak) Extract
Zingiber Officinalis Dry ( Adarak) Extract
Common Name : Adrak
Plant Parts Used : Rhizome

Description : 
A herbaceous rhizornatous perennial, up to 90 cm in height when fully grown. The herb develops several lateral shoots in clumps. Leazies are 15-30 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, with sheathiiig bases, the blade gradually tapering to a point. The rhizomes are aromatic, thick lobed pale yellow, bearing simple alternate dlistichous narrow, oblong lanceolate leaves.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
Ginger contains 1-2% volatile oil and 5-8% resinous matter, starch and mucilage. The oil of ginger is a mixture of over 24 constituents, consisting of monoterpenes (phellandrene, (+) carnphene, cineolc, citral and borneol) and sesquiterpenes etc (zingiberine, and bisabolene). The pungent component is gingerol-formed in the plant from phenylalaanine, nialoiiate and hexanoate. Minor constituents of an extract are gingreniols, methylgingediol, gingeryldiacetates and methyl gingediacetates. 

Actions and Uses :
Anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema has been shown. The active principles gingerol, and dehydrogingerdione and gingerdione were shown to be potent inhibitors of pr.ostaglandin synthesis - confirming the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect. The antirheumatic effects were further confirmed by other inves- tigators. Antihistaminic activity has also been shown in vitroll. The plant inhibits the virion toxic factor production in infected chorioallantoin membrane and also inhibits the growth of W.M. - 25d malignant cell-line. Cardiac inotropic activity has been shown in, Dogs and guinea pigs. Ginger was shown to have significant antiemetic and antivertigo effects like dramamine. It has been lised effectively along with Piper nigrum and Piper longum in viral hepatitis. Ginger forms an important constituent of many ayurvedic formula- tions. It is chiefy used as a home remedy for nausea and dyspepsia.

Hedychium Spicatum Extract

Hedychium Spicatum Extract
Hedychium Spicatum Extract
Common Name : Sutti
Plant Parts Used : Rhizome

Description of Hedychium Spicatum :
It is an annual herb, with a horizontal root- stock, and tuberous rootfibres, leaves are 30 cms or more in length. Inflorescence is spiked. Flowers ascending and dense yellow coloured. Capsule is globose.

 
     
 
Characteristics and Constituents :
The dried rhizome of the plant contains essential oil, starch, resins, organic acids and a glycoside; albumen and saccharine are also present. The essential oil has ethyl ester of p-methoxy cinnamic acid, d-sabirene cineole, sesquiterpenes and pentadecane methyl paracumarine acetate. It contain, ß -sitosterol and its ß-D-glycoside.

Actions and Uses :
In preliminary pharmacological studies the drug is found to have a vasodilatory effect on coronary vessels, mild hy-potensive property and a non-specific antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles. Studies on the essential oil of the rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum reveal that these oils possess a mild tranquilizing effect of short duration. They depressed the conditioned avoidance response, rotarod performance and potentiated pento-barbitone hypnosis and morphine analgesia in rats. The crude ethanolic extract of rhizomes possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was mainly localised in the hexane fraction from which 1% of pure active constituent was isolated. The analgesic activity was more prominent in the benzene fraction. Some other minor active constituents were also present which may contribute to the total activity of rhizomes.

The root stalk is useful in local inflammations, nausea, asthma, bronchitis, hiccups and in pain. The rhizome of the plant is said to be carminative, stimulant and a tonic. It has been described as useful, specially as an antiasthmatic agent. Clinical trials have been conducted in tropical eosinophilia, with promising results. It counteracts had mouth taste and smell.
In the doses commonly used, no adverse reactions have been reported.

Tangerine Oil ( Citrus Reticulata)

Tangerine Oil ( Citrus Reticulata)
Tangerine Oil ( Citrus Reticulata)

Latin name: Citrus reticulata. Family: Rutaceae. Cold pressed from the tangerine peel and imported from Brazil. It has an sweet, citrus scent. Some traditional uses: for relieving muscle spasms, to soothe and calm nerves, for stress relief and relaxation, to stimulate the liver and increase lymphatic drainage. May cause skin sensitivity to bright sunlight. Emotional profile: to heal inner child issues, for relieving anxiety, obsession with the past, emotional trauma. Blends with: spice oils, nutmeg, clove bud, lemon, neroli, bergamot, lime, orange and grapefruit.

Spearmint Oil ( Mentha Spicate)

Latin name: Mentha spicata. Family: Labiatae. Distilled from the flowering tops from the USA. It has the familiar fragrance of chewing gum. Some traditional uses: for relieving bronchitis and sinusitis, to ease nausea and headaches, for relieving colds or flu, to stimulate, energize and relieve fatigue. Blends with: rosemary, lavender, eucalyptus, basil and jasmine.

Amla Tablets

Common Name : Amla
Plant Parts Used : Fruit

Description :
A medium to large deciduous tree with small leaves, which are closely set in pinnate passion. Leaves simple, a hundred or more on each branchlets in a symmetrically distichous manner, linear oblong or linear elliptic, slightly recurved, entire, obtuse of rounded at base, apex sub-acute or apiculate, glabrous, light green above, paler and at times puberulous beneath.

 
     
 
The fruit is nearly spherical or globular, slightly broader than long, and with small, shallow, conical depressions at either end of its longitudinal axis, especially at the place of attachment of the stalk. Its size varies according to the variety. Normally the fruit is 18 to 25 mm wide at the middle and 15 to 20 mm along the longitudinal axis. Fruits depressed - globose, succulent, yellow or pink when ripe, obscurely 6-lobed.

Characteristics and Constituents :
The major constituents is Vitamin C. It content up to 720 mg / 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg / 100 cc of pressed juice, has been recorded. The fruit is probable the richest natural source of vitamin C. The other constituents are Enzymes, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid, etc.

Actions and Uses :
The fruit is used as a Diuretic, Laxative, Hair dyes, Detergent, Shampoo. It is also used as a Cardio protective, useful in hemorrhage, menprrhagia, leucorrhoea, discharge of blood from uterus. Poultice used to stop bleeding from cuts. The fermented fruit liquor, it is used in jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, indigestion, anemia, heart complaints, promotion of urination. The emblica officinalis juice with Lemon, it is used to arrest acute bacillary dysentery.



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