Diamonds are the hardest of all gemstones and also the hardest transparent substance. They are a simple crystalline structure of carbon produced by extreme high pressures and temperature. The melting point of a diamond is 4,000 degree C or about 2.5 times higher than the melting point of steel. Gem quality diamonds being, account for their value.
A rough diamond is a like a pebble but when properly cut and polished its fire comes to life. Fire is the flash, spark, sparkles, caused by the proportioning, angles and positioning of facets that reflect and refract light inside the diamond. Facets must be precisely cut so that light bounces freely inside the diamond, and then exits through the crown or top, directly to the eye of the viewer.
It takes from several hours to several months to cut and polish a diamond, depending on the size, shape and style of the final product. A Diamond looses approximately 50% of its original weight in the process of cutting and polishing.
The most popular shape for cut diamonds is the round or round brilliant. Other popular shapes are the oval, square, marquise, pear, emerald, heart and princess. The price of a Diamond depends on the 4Cs-cut, clarity, carat, and color.