Indiamart
Sri Balaji Biotech 8
YR
8th Year of Membership
Faridabad, Haryana

Herbal Extracts

We are leading Manufacturer & Exporter for the Herbal Extracts which also includes Kava Kava & Adhatoda Zeylanica since 2007

Kava Kava

Kava Kava

Botanical Name: Piper methysticum

Plant Parts Used: The peeled, Dried and Divided Rhizome


Description: An indigenous shrub several feet him, leaves cordate, acuminate, with very short axillary spikes of flowers; stem dichotamars, spotted. The natives prepare a fermented liquor from the upper portion of the rhizone and base of the stems; it is narcotic and timulant and is drunk before important regious rites. The root of the plant, chewed and mixed with the saliva, gives a hot into rating juice; it is mixed with pure water or the water of the coco-nut. Its continued use in large doses causes inflammation of the body and eyes, resulting in leprous ulcers, the skin becomes parched and peels off in scals.

 

Commercial Kava rhizome is in whitish on grey-brown roughly wedge-shaped fragments from which the periderm is cut off about 2 inches thick; the transverse section usually shows a dense central pith, surrounded by a clean ring of vascular bundles, narrow and radiating, separated by broadish light-maloced medullary rays. Fracture starchy, faint pleasant odour, taste bitter, pungent, aromatic; it yields not more than 8 per cent, of ash.


Characteristics and Constituents: Oil cells often contain a greenish-yellow resin, termed kawine; it is strongly aromatic and acrid; the plant contains a second resin less active than the first, a volatile oil and an alkaloid, Kavaine Methysticcum yangonin, and abundance of starch.


Actions and Uses:
The effect on the nerve entres is at first stimulating, then depressing, ending with paralysis of the respiratory centre. The irritant action and insolubility of the resin has lessened its use as a local anaesthetic, but for over 125 years Kava root has been found valuable in the treatment of gonorrhoea both acute and chronic, vaginitis, leucorrhoea, nocturnal incontinence and other ailments of the genito-urinary tract. It resembles pepper in local action. A 20 per cent, oil of Kava resin in oil of Sandalwood, called gonosan, is used internally for gonorrhoea. Being a local anaesthetic it relieves pain and has an aphrodisiac effect; it has also an antiseptic effect on the urine. The capsules contain 0.3 gram; two to four can be given several times per day. As Kava is a strong diuretic. It falls under the category of Generally Regarded as Safe Products (GRAS).

Adhatoda Zeylanica

Adhatoda Zeylanica

Common Name: Vasaka / Malabar Nut
Plant Parts Used: Fresh dried Leaves


Description: Leaves are simple, opposite, petiolate, ex-stipulate, 10-20 cm long and 3-10 cm broad, lanceolate to oval - lanceolate, crenate, margin, a tapering base and an acuminate apex, light green in colour, 8-10 pairs of lateral veins which are reticulate. Petioles 2-8 cm long, exstipulate, glabrescent. Odour characteristic and taste bitter.


Actions and Uses: The bronchodilatiry and expectorant properties of the leaves are attributed to vasicine. The drug possesses abortifacient activity and significant antimicrobial activity against gingival inflammation and pyrrhoea.

 

Clinical trials of the drug Wintry (containing vasicine and vasicinone) have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma. The drug is known to possess abortifacient activity and hence should not be used during pregnancy.

Aloe Barbadensis

Aloe Barbadensis

Common Name: Ghritkumari

Botanical Name: Aloe Barbadensis, Aloe Vera

Plant Parts Used: Dried Leaves


Description: Leaves of aloe vera are large, succulent, suulate, sessile, 20-50 cm long and 5-10 cm wide. Apex in the form of a sharp and acute spine. Both the surfaces are strongly cuticularized. Dried leaf juice dark chocolate brown to black in colour and of irregular masses. Odour characteristic; taste very bitter.


Actions and Uses: Cathartic action of the drug, limited to large intestine, is attributed to anthraquinone glycosides, chiefly aloin. Latter is not absorbed in upper gut but hydrolysed to the active aglycone at the site of action in the colon and rectum by intestinal bacteria. The anthrones irritate the mucus membrane leading to an increase in the secretion of mucus, thus stimulating peristalsis. Also they induce an active secretion of water and electrolytes into the lumen of the gut, and inhibit the absorption of electrolytes and water by the colon.

 

Prolonged use of aloe barbadensis may severely affect the electrolyte balance and loss of potassium may ultimately reduce the laxative action and disturb the cardiac rhythm in heart patients. Larger doses leads to accumulation of blood in pelvic region and reflux stimulation of uterine muscles and may bring about abortion or premature birth in late pregnancy. Toxic doses can also cause kidney damage. Active principles generally appear in the milk during lactation. Due to these reasons the drug is contraindicated in pregnancy, lactation, kidney complaints and irritable bowel conditions.

Aloe Indica Royle

Aloe Indica Royle

Common Name : Ghritkumari

Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Juice and Pulp


Description:
Aloe plants are characterized by stemless large, thick, fleshy leaves, lance shaped, sharp apex and a spiny margin. The colour of leaves varies from species to species - gray to bright green, chocolate brown to black.

Characteristics and Constituents: The three main pentoside constituents of aloe indica royle are barbaloin, isobarbaloin and ß-barbaloin. The other minor constituents isolated are volatile and nonvolatile oils, resin, gum, emodin, chrysophanic acid and traces of coumarin.


Actions and Uses:
Intravenous injection of extract of aloe increases the flow of hepatic bile in the anaesthetized dog. The duration of action is relatively long. The effect of the water and alcohol extract of the leaves in female rats showed 88% reduction in fertility. The effect of the aqueous extract was studied in Triton induced hyperlipidoemia in mondey.

Aloe Indica is used as an appetite-stimulant tonic in small doses and in larger doses as a purgative, and indirectly, emmenogogue and antheimintic in children. The leaf extract along with sugar is used in cough and colds. A sweet confection prepared from the pulp of the leaves is given in piles. The ayurvedic preparation Kumari Asava is used in several ailments such as general debility, cough, dyspnoea, asthma etc. it is also used in jaundice.

With standard doses used in man, occasionally a laxative effect can occur.

Amla

Amla

Common Name: Amla

Plant Parts Used: Fruit

Description: A medium to large deciduous tree with small leaves, which are closely set in pinnate passion. Leaves simple, a hundred or more on each branchlets in a symmetrically distichous manner, linear oblong or linear elliptic, slightly recurved, entire, obtuse of rounded at base, apex sub-acute or apiculate, glabrous, light green above, paler and at times puberulous beneath.


The fruit is nearly spherical or globular, slightly broader than long, and with small, shallow, conical depressions at either end of its longitudinal axis, especially at the place of attachment of the stalk. Its size varies according to the variety. Normally the fruit is 18 to 25 mm wide at the middle and 15 to 20 mm along the longitudinal axis. Fruits depressed - globose, succulent, yellow or pink when ripe, obscurely 6-lobed.

Characteristics and Constituents: The major constituents is Vitamin C. It content up to 720 mg / 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg / 100 cc of pressed juice, has been recorded. The fruit is probable the richest natural source of vitamin C. The other constituents are Enzymes, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid, etc.


Actions and Uses: The fruit is used as a Diuretic, Laxative, Hair dyes, Detergent, Shampo. It is also used as a Cardioprotective, useful in hemorrhage, menprrhagia, leucorrhoea, discharge of blood from uterus. Poultice used to stop bleeding from cuts. The fermented fruit liquor, it is used in jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, indigestion, anemia, heart complaints, promotion of urination. The emblica officinalis juice with Lemon, it is used to arrest acute bacillary dysentery.

Bacopa Monnieri Herb Dried Extracts

Bacopa Monnieri Herb Dried Extracts

Common Name : Nir Brahmi

Plant Parts Used : Leaves, Stem, Dried whole plant


Description of Bacopa Monnieri: Creeping, glabrous, succulent herb, rooting at nodes. Stem 10-30 cm long, 1-2 mm thick, soft, glabrous; branches ascending. Leaves 0.6-2.5 cm long and 3-8mm broad, sessile, obovate-oblong or spatulate, entire, nerves obscure and lower surface dotted. Flowers blue or white with purple veins, axillary and solitary on long pedicels. Capsule ovoid, glabrous, up to 5 mm long. No distinct odour; taste slightly bitter.


Actions and Uses: Alcoholic extract increases the learning performance of rats and the activity is attributed to saponin mixture consisting of bacosides A, B and other saponins. Other pharmacological effects of the extracts include sedative, antiepileptic, cardiotonic, vascoconstrictor, and anti-inflammatory activity Brain tonic.
Sedation is associated with the therapeutic doses of the drug.

Bambusa Arundinacae

Bambusa Arundinacae

Common Name: Bans

Plant Parts Used: The siliceous concretions on young-shrubs, Bark, Root and Flowers


Description:
The plant is erect, bending at the summit and pointed, hollow between joints, branches, alternate, thorns 2 or 3 alternate on the joints, leaves sheathing, linear, lanceolate. The plant grows quite tall and is ornamental.

Characteristics and Constituents:
Vansalochanam contains silica 90% or silicon as hydrate of silicic acid, peroxide of iron, potash, lime, aiumina, vegetable matter. The grains of the plant contain water 11.0%, starch 73.1%, albuminoids 11.86%, fibre 1.7% and ash 1.2%. The young shoots containing cyanogenic glyposide are poisonous. The glycoside is hydrolysed by an enzyme also present in the shoots when they are cut and soaked in water.

Actions and Uses:
Not much experimental work has been carried out on the plant. The young shoots contain 0.3 per cent hydrocyanic acid and are lethal to mosquito larvae.

Vansalochanam is used clinically for the treatment of praincha and given in combination with other drugs, relieves burning sensation. It is also useful to children with cough and asthma. A decoction of bamboo joints is said to increase the flow of lochia after delivery. The juice of leaves'with aromatics is given in haematemesis; older and dried stems of bamboo are used as splints in fracture, young shoots of the bamboo made into poultice is an efficacious application for dislodgement of worms from ulcers of cattle, the juice is poured on the vermin and the liquid mass applied and secured by a bandage. Vansalochanam is a stimulant and a tonic used in asthma, tuberculosis, jaundice, leprosy, anaemia and other vata rogas. In combination with other astringent medicines it is also given in chronic dysentery and internal haemorrhage. Sitopaladi churna is given in tuberculosis with honey. In urinary retention vansalochanam is used with rice water and sugar.

One quarter of an ounce of raw shoots or a slightly larger amount, when insufficiently cooked can cause death. The young shoots contain 0.3 per cent hydrocyanic acid. Chronic intake of cyanogenic alkaloids can lead to tropical ataxia due to neuropathy.

Capsicum Annum

Capsicum Annum

Common Name: Lal Mirch / Red Chillie

Plant Parts Used: Fruit


Description of Capsicum Annum:
Leaves oblong, glabrous, flowers solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white to bluish white, very rarely violet, berries green, maturing in to yellow, orange to red grading into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, very variable in size up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in diam, shape and pungency, sometimes lobed, seeds white or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long placental connections.

Characteristics and Constituents: The major constituent is Capsaicin. Other constituents are moisture - 10.0%; protein - 15.9%; fat-6.2%; fibre - 30.2 %; carbohydrates - 31.6 %; minerals - 6.1%, calcium - 160; vitamin C - 50 mg/100 g, etc.


Actions and Uses:
Capsaicin is shown to be a potent stressor agent and produces a rise in corticosterone level. When applied to human skin, capsaicin produces erythema and burning without blistering. Intragastrically, capsaicin promotes ulceration. Capsaicin at a dilution of 1 : 1,000 showed bacteriostatic activity against several organisms. Oleoresin red pepper - obtained from the longer, moderately pungent chillies chiefly used for flavouring.

Since its introduction, the chilli has become the most popular spice and replaced black pepper to a very large extent. Capsicum wool, prepared by dissolving the oleoresin in ether and pouring it on absorbent cotton wool, is useful in rheumatoid affections. Capsicum tincture has been employed externally in the treatment of chilblains. Chilli, in small doses, is a powerful stimulant and carminative. It stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, and increases peristaltic movements and motility of stomach. It is an excellent remedy in atonic and flatulent dyspepsia and dipsomania.

Cassia Fistula Linn

Cassia Fistula Linn

Common Name: Amaltas

Plant Parts Used: Root bark, Root, Pulp, Leaves and Flowers


Description:
A medium sized deciduous tree, 6-9 meters tall with a straight trunk and spreading branches (Fig. 1). Stem bark is pale grey, smooth and slender when young and dark brown and rough when old. Leaves alternate 20-40 em long, paripinnate, long stalked stipulate petioles 6-9 mm long, leaflets 5-15 cm long, ovate, acute stalked. Flowers-large bright yellow in long axillary racemes. Fruit -a pod 30-60 cm long and over 30 cm thick.

Characteristics and Constituents: The leaves of Cassia fistula contain free rhein, glucoside and sennosides A and B. A butanol extract of the powdered stem bark contained tannins while the benzeme extract yielded lupeol, ß-sitosterol and hexacosanol. From the alcoholic extract of the pods an anthraquinone (fistulic acid) was obtained and identified as 1, 4-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxy, 2-methylanthraquinone-3-carboxylic Acid. Kaempferol and a proanthocyanidin have been isolated from the flowers and leucope-largonidin trimer from the bark.


Actions and Uses: Anti-bacterial activity was found in the leaves, stem bark and fruit pulp, the last being the most potent. The ether extract of the pulp exhibited the maximum activity, and in vitro, the extract inhibited the growth of Staph aureus, Staph albus, B. megatherium, Sh. flexneri, Sh. shiga and S. typhi. The extract was found to be more potent than chloramphenicol. The ether extract of leaves also showed activity against Staph aurous and Staph albui. Alcohol and acetone extracts of stem bark were found active against Staph. aureuy, Staph. Album and B. inegathmum. The root buk was found to he inactive. In vitro, 100 mg of acetone extract of root and stem bark showed- antifungal action against T. tonsurans, T. rubrum and T. megnini and was more potent than 16g of griscofulyin. Two flavonoid glycoside fractions isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark also possessed marked antifungal activity against M. gypseum T. mentagrophytes T. rubrum and T. tonsurans. The plant has been shown to possess antiviral activity against Vaccinia and Newcastle disease viruses. The extracts inhibited the cytopathy of most viruses and also their replication in the cells of the host. The fruit pulp has laxative activity.

 

In a pilot study 542 patients with various types of dermatoses were treated with Cassia fistula bark prepared and administered according to the classical ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Clinical improvement, observed in these patients was encouraging. The same authors studied 30 patients of pyoderma (17 with folliculitis and 13 with impetigo) with topical use of the fraction isolated from the acetone extract of Cassia ffituu Organisms responsible for the lesions were coagulase-positive Staphylococci, haemolytic Streptococci and Klebsiella Majority of these organisms were resistant to penicillin, streptomycin, terramyein, and chloramphenicol. Lesions healed in 20 out of 30 patients within 6 to 13 days though marked improvement was observed after 2 to 5 days. The fruit pulp of amaltas is widely prescribed as a mild laxative for children.

 

The plant was well tolerated by a group of 542 patients with various types of dermatoses. Topical use also did not show any allergic manifestations. The plant is commonly prescribed, even for women and children.

Citrus Medica Linn

Citrus Medica Linn

Common Name: Bara Nimbu / Citron

Plant Parts Used: Root, Flowers, Fruit, Juice Seed


Description of Citrus Medica:
Shrubs or trees are perennial. Leaflets 7.5 - 15 cm. long, oblong, glabrous. Petiole short marginated. Flowers numerous, raceme white or often tinged with pink frequently uni-sexual. Fruit, large oblong or obovoid and rind usually whorled and thick, known as hesperidium.

Characteristics and Constituents:
The peel contains citroflavonoids consisting of a mixture of hesperidoside (rhamnoglucoside of hesperetol), naringoside and ecryodietyoside (flavonones). Essential oils and Vitamin C are also found. Glucosides hesperidin (Vitamin P) and rutin are also present. Some varieties contain the flavonoid naringin. The triterpenoids e.g. limonin gives the intensely bitter taste to some citrus species.

Actions and Uses:
Citroflavonoids control the permeability of the capillaries by decreasing the porosity of the walls and thus enhancing the exchange of liquids and the diffusion of proteins. The mechanism for this phenomenon is complex,and includes the protective action of diphenols on catecholamines participating in vascular integrity. When capillary resistance is lessened citroflavonoids can prevent bleeding in hypertensive or diabetic patients (diabetic retinopathy) or in purpura, and where there is tendency to haematoma. The citroflavonoids also have an anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and diuretic action and can cause dilatation of the coronaries.

Due to their effect on capillary permeability they are used in modern medical practice in diseases where permeability is increased (varicose veins, haemorrhoids, capillaritis) and in oedema, and ascitis in cirrhosis. They also prevent excessive bleeding.

In ayurvedic practice, the dried rind or citrus juice is used in kapha and vata diseases, as a vermifuge, for asthma and digestive disorders, as an anti-scorbutic. It is used to counteract nausea and to increase appetite.

No untoward reactions have been reported with the standard doses of the formulations.

Commiphora Mukul Extracts

Commiphora Mukul Extracts

Common Name : Guggul

Plant Parts Used : Gum resin, Stem, Leaf

Description of Commiphora Mukul: A woody shrub to a small tree, with spirally ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate, leaflets sessile to subsessile, terminal ones largest, rhomboid to ovate in shape, irregularly toothed argin. Flowers small, brown to pink, unisexual. Calyx shows glandular hairs, forming cylindrical cap; Petals 4-5 times as long as sepal. Stigma 8-10, stigma, inconspicuously bilobed. Fruit-drupe, red, ovate, accuminate in shape, with 2-celled store, rarely 4 valved.


Characteristics and Constituents:
The olcoresin contains 0.37% essential oil containing mainly myrecene, dimyrecene, and polymyrecene. Alcohol extraction gives a soluble resin and an insoluble carbohydrate gum. Solvent extraction, hydrolysis and column chromatography over silica gel of guggul resin identifies a number of compounds -a diterpene hydrocarbon, a diterpene alcohol, Z-guggulsterone E-guggul- sterone, guggulsterol-I gugguisterol-II and guggulsterol-III Cholesterol, sesamin and camphorene are also found. The anti inflammatory and hypolipidaemic fractions have been isolated.

Actions and Uses: The two main areas of investigation have been its 1) Hypolipidaemic action (which has been recognised since the vedic ages) and 2) its anti-inflammatory effect. Hypolipidaemic action was pioneered by the laboratory investigations carried out by Satyavati based on the postulation of Sushruta that guggul is very useful in the treatment of obesity. On treatment of experimentally induced hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits, with crude guggul, for a period of 8 weeks, the abnormal hyperlipaemia was significantly less after four weeks. Regression in serum cholesterol after loading was much greater in guggul-treated rabbits than in the untreated controls Oral administration of crude guggulu, as also the alcohol soluble and insoluble fractions produce lower cholesterol levels and lessening in serum turbidity. Of the three petroleum ether fractions of guggulu A, B and C,fraction A is most effective in lowering the hyper- cholesterolaemia in cholesterol fed chickens. When a 95%. Alcohol extract of guggulu was given to Indian domestic pigs kept on a standard atherogenic diet for a period of six weeks, the total serum cholesterol, and the serum lipoprotein were both significantly reduced. In albino rats and in rabbits too, crude guggulu and a pure steroid reduced the serum cholesterol by the second week of exposures. A similar hypocholesterolaemic effect was found in the alcohol extract and two pure fractions-a terpenod and a steroid- this being the most potent fraction with a lowering rate of 69% and a c/p ratio of 1.24 to 0.73. The cholesterol lowering effects of fraction A have been seen in monkeys kept on a high cholesterol diet, the results being comparable to those of Atromid-S. The mode of action appears to lie in its fibrinolytic activity and a fall in the platelet adhesive index. Purified steroidal fractions of guggulu show a marked inhibition of platelet aggregation by ADP, adrenaline, and scrotonin, the effect being comparable to that of clofibrate. The steroidal component of Fraction A of the petroleum ether extract has marked antiarthritic effect,comparable to that of hydrocortisone,and more potent than phenyl-butazone. It has a high anti- inflammatory potential against Brownlee's formaldehyde-induced arthritis in albino rats. However, only the acidic fraction showed significant activity, the nonacid and solid fraction being inactive. Carrageenin oedema of the rat paw also regressed on exposure to the steroidal component of Fraction A of gum guggulu. The resin extract is reported to have some immunosuppressive effect on rabbits sensitised with typhoid H antigen.

Embelia Ribes Burn

Embelia Ribes Burn

Common Name: Vidanga

Plant Parts Used: Berries (fruit) leaves, Root-bark


Description: This climbing shrub, has to be differentially identified from Embelia tsjeriam-cottam. The roots are brownish gray, with hairy reddish rootiets. The stem is whitish gray, studded with lenticels, with a mature girth of 45-72 cms. Leaves are coriaceous, elliptic, lanceolate 6-14 cms long and 2-4 cms broad, alternating, acuminate entire, perfectly glabrous and petiole 1.0 cm - 0.8 cm margined. Midrib prominent, inflorescence panicles 15-60 cms in length, upper panicles often 7.5-10 cm pubescent. Flowers pentamerous, minute, white or yellow. Fruit A berry, 2.4-4 mm obovate to subglobular tipped with style, smooth, succulent, in dry condition with wrinkles with loss of calyx.


Characteristics and Constituents: The main active component in the plant extract is Embelin (Embelic acid : 2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1, 4-Benzoquinone. Other components are christembeline, an alkaloid and a resinoid and volatile oil. Embeline reacts quantitatively with formaldehyde to give vidangin, methylene-bis-2-5-dihydroxy-4-undecyl-3-6-benzoquinones. Quercitol and fatty ingredients are also found.

Actions and Uses: Studies on this plant can be described under three acreas - its antifertility effect, antioestrogenic action and as a anthelmintic agent. The powdered fruit administered orally to female rats in different doses prolonged the oestrus phase of the oestrous cycle and inhibited the fertility in 60% animals. Petroleum and methanol extracts prevented pregnancy by influencing the oestrous cycle in 75% of the test females. Benzene extract had a 51% antifertility efficacy and chloroform extract 37%. Purified embelin, isolated from the plant showed no anti-fertility effect.

 

Anti-implantation effect was seen 100% in albino rats given 10 mg/kg embelin, and also in rabbits. Its anti-fertility effect has been postulated due to different physiological mechanisms 10,11 some terming it a promising oral contraceptive too. Its antioestrogenic effect has been suggested experimentally. Experimental study on its anthelmintic action traditionally postulated, is reported. Alcoholic extract was stated to be effective in 80% infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is used mainly in helminthiasis, and antifungal agent in ringworm, and in other chronic dermatoses. It is also given, boiled in milk, to infants as a digestive and against recurrent upper respiratory infections.

 

In an oral dose up to 3 /kg body weight embelin did not show lethal effect in rats and mice. Ten weeks' exposure to embelin (10 mg/kg body weight) showed no significant changes in the histology of heart, liver, kidney, adrenals and spleen in rodents. The haemograms were also normal. With the routine clinical doses no side effects have been reported.

Emblica Officinalis Fruits Extracts

Emblica Officinalis Fruits Extracts

Common Name : Amla

Plant Parts Used : Fruit


Description of Emblica Officinalis: A medium to large deciduous tree with small leaves, which are closely set in pinnate passion. Leaves simple, a hundred or more on each branchlets in a symmetrically distichous manner, linear oblong or linear elliptic, slightly recurved, entire, obtuse of rounded at base, apex sub-acute or apiculate, glabrous, light green above, paler and at times puberulous beneath. The fruit is nearly spherical or globular, slightly broader than long, and with small, shallow, conical depressions at either end of its longitudinal axis, especially at the place of attachment of the stalk. Its size varies according to the variety. Normally the fruit is 18 to 25 mm wide at the middle and 15 to 20 mm along the longitudinal axis. Fruits depressed - globose, succulent, yellow or pink when ripe, obscurely 6-lobed.


Characteristics and Constituents:
The major constituents is Vitamin C. It content up to 720 mg / 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg / 100 cc of pressed juice, has been recorded. The fruit is probable the richest natural source of vitamin C. The other constituents are Enzymes, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid, etc.


Actions and Uses: The fruit is used as a Diuretic, Laxative, Hair dyes, Detergent, Shampo. It is also used as a Cardioprotective, useful in hemorrhage, menprrhagia, leucorrhoea, discharge of blood from uterus. Poultice used to stop bleeding from cuts. The fermented fruit liquor, it is used in jaundice, dyspepsia, cough, indigestion, anemia, heart complaints, promotion of urination. The emblica officinalis juice with Lemon, it is used to arrest acute bacillary dysentery.

Garlic

Garlic

Common Name: Lahsun / Garlic

Plant Parts Used:
Buibils or Cloves


Description: It is a small plant. The leaves are green, slender, flat and elongated. The stem is smooth and solid. The bulbs are composed of several bulbils (cloves), encased in white or pink skin of the parent bulb. The inflorescence is an umbel initially enclosed in a spathe.


Characteristics and Constituents:
The strong smelling juice of the bulbs contain a mixture of aliphatic mono and polysulphides. The chief constituent is allicin, diallyl disulphide oxide. The latter results from spontaneous enzymatic reduction of allin and 5-allylcystine sulphamide. Thio - glycoside, aminoacids, fatty acids, flavonols, vitamins, trace elements, volatile oils etc. have also been demonstrateds.


Actions and Uses: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of garlic has been shown, by several investigators, against many common patho - genic organisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Escheiichia coli, Candida albicans, Shigelia sonnei Salmonella typhi. Essential oils of garlic prevented an increase in a -Iipoproteins, pre- a lipoproteins occurring after cholesterol-feeding in rabbits. Fibrinolytic activity was also significantly increased.Inhibition of platelet-aggregation in vitro and in vivo has also been demonstrated with garlic. There have been several studies showing the hypoglycaemic activity of garlic and allicin in animals.

 

The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastro- intestinal disorders was studied in 29 patients. A significant carminative effect,with a relief of nausea,gascolic,flatulence, belching and heaviness was observed. The effects of fried and raw garlic on blood showed an increase in fibrinolytic activity in 20 patients with ischaemic heart disease. A decrease in triglycerides and cholesterol has been observed. Garlic oil drops are put in the ears for infection and earache. Garlic is also used as an antiinfective agent topically and in other intercurrent infections.

 

Garlic as a food item has been used for thousands of years by millions of people all over the world. Prolonged chronic feeding of large amounts of garlic powder (350 mg/kg) showed severe testicular lesions after 70 days and arrest in spermatogenesis the dose being equivalent to 20 g (freeze-dried) garlic powder in a 60 kg man. Occupational exposure to garlic leading to asthma and contact dermatitis have been reported.

Green Tea

Green Tea

Common Name: Green Tea

Plant Parts Used: Leaves


Description: The leaves of Camellia Senesis are small of length 5.5 - 6.1 cm by width 2.2 - 2.4 cm and the trunk of the tree is the bush type. The cultivars of this type can survive in winter as cold as -12'C and are cultivated in the temperate regions.


Characteristics and Constituents:
The major constituent is Polyphenols. The other constituents are carotene, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid, malic acid, oxalic acid kaempferol, quercetin, theophylline, theobromine xanthine, hypoxanthine, adenine, gums, dextrins and inositol.

Actions and Uses:
There is a growing body of evidence that green tea and the polyphenols therein, possess inhibitory effects against cancer and act as powerful antioxidants. Polyphenols with their natural antioxidant ability are widely used for the prevention of oxidation of edible oils or discoloration of reddish color in foods.

Henna

Henna

Common Name: Henna

Plant Parts Used: Leaves


Description: A middle sized or large, much-branched shrub, sometimes tree-like, branches 4 angled, usually ending in a sharp point. Leaves opposite, 2-3 cm long, often acute and sharp-pointed. Flowers small, white or pinkish, fragrant, in terminal large bunches. Fruit small, size of a pea, round; seeds many.


Characteristics and Constituents: The leaves of the plant have certain medicinal properties. They are astringent and are used as a prophylactic against skin diseases. A decoction of leaves is used as gargle in sore throat. The paste of leaves is largely used in Indian homes in headache, burning sensation in feet, etc.

 

The leaves have also been shown to have some action against tubercular and other bacteria, and in typhoid and haemorrhagia. The plant has not, however, so far been put to much use in this manner. The bark and seeds of the plant are also reported to be used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine.


Actions and Uses: The chief use of the Henna plant is as pleasant orange dye for colouring palms, nails, feet, hair, beard, even tails and limbs of animals. Henna, mixed with other natural dyes, is largely used as hairdye and even for textiles.
The oil obtained from its flowers is used in perfumery.

Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Extract

Adhatoda Vasica Leaf Extract

Botanical Name: Adhatoda vasica, Justicia adhatoda

Common Name: Adulsa
Plant Parts Used: Leaves, Roots, Flowers and Stem Bark


Description: It is a small evergreen, subherbacious bush. The Leaves are 10 to 16 cms in length, minutely pubescent and broadly lanceolate. The inflorescence is dense, short pedunculate, bractate and spike terminal. The corolla is large and white with lower lip streaked purple. The fruit is a 4-seeded small capsule.


Characteristics and Constituents: The leaves of the plant contain an essential oil and alkaloids vasicine, N-oxides of vasicine, vasicinone, deoxyvasicine and maiontone. The roots are known to contain vasicinolone, vasicol, peganine and 2 - hydroxy - 4 - glucosyl - oxychalcone. The flowers contain ß-sitosterol-D-glucoside, kaempferol, its glycosides and quercetin. The growth in vitro of all the strains of M. tuberculosis was inhibited by the essential oil (2-20 µg/ml). Ultrastructurally the bacilli appeared abnormal and swollen. The active alkaloid-vasicine and its autooxidation product-vasicinone-have shown broncho- dilator and antihistaminic effects. The activity is comparable with theophylline. Uterine stimulant activity and moderate hypotensive activity of the alkaloids were reported. Thrombopoeitic activity of vasicine has been observed.

 

The leaf extract has been used for treatment of bronchitis and asthma for many centuries. It relieves cough and breathlessness. It is also prescribed commonly in ayurveda for bleeding due to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, local bleeding due to peptic ulcer, piles, menorrhagia etc. Large doses of fresh juice of leaves have been used in tuberculosis. Its local use gives relief in pyorrhoea and in bleeding gums.


Actions and Uses:
In ayurveda the human use of the leaf extract, is considered safe. The oil is shown to have low toxicity in mice and guinea pigs. The alcoholic extract has insecticidal and pesticidal activity. Teratogenic studies were safe. However, the uterotonic and aborti- facient activity prevents its use during pregnancy, particularly in high doses of extracts.

Lawsonia Inermis Dry Extracts

Lawsonia Inermis Dry Extracts

Botanical Name: Lawsonia Inermi

Common Name: Mehndi

Plant Parts Used: Bark, Leaves, Flowers, Seeds


Description: A glabrous much branched shrub or quite a small tree with grayish brown bark. Leaves are opposite, subsessile, elliptic or broadly lanceolate, entire, acute or obtuse, 2-3 cm long and 1-2 cm wide. Flowers are numerous, small, white or rose coloured, fragrant.


Characteristics and Constituents: The leaves of lawsonia inermis contain soluble matter, lawsone, 2-hydroxy - 1:4 - naphthoquinone resin and tannin, gallic acid, glucose, mannitol, fat, resin and mucilage are also present. The colouring matter is the quinone.


Actions and Uses:
Alcoholic extract of the leaves showed mild anti- bacterial activity against Staph aureus and E. coli. Antibacterial and antifungal activities have been confirmed. The antihaemorrhagic properties are attributed to lawsone. The naphthoquinone has emmenogogue and oxytocie actions.

Leaves are used as emmenogogue and as an antifungal drug :Unani physicians prescribe it for external us in headache. It is used for jaundice. As a cooling agent it is used for burning of skin. The local use on palms and soles is widespread in India. Allergic reaction is rare. No mutagenic activity was observed in Ames' test.

Nardostachys Dry Extracts

Nardostachys Dry Extracts

Common Name: Jatamansi Oil

Plant Parts Used: Rhizome, Oil from rhizome

Description: Erect herb, rhizome thick covered with a bundle of fine, reddish brown fibres, fragrant. Leaves radical, 15-20 cm narrowed into the petiole, entire, flowers capitate, pinkish white.

Characteristics and Constituents: A volatile essential oil 0.5% resin, sugar, starch, bitter extractive matter and gum are obtained from the rhizome. Jatamansi oil contains a ketone, jatamansone which is the same as valeranone (in valerian). It also contains jatamansic acid. Jatamansone semi- carbazone is a sesquiterpenic ketone isolated from the rhizomes.

Actions and Uses of Nardostachys: Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antioestrogenic activity. When given alone it is also manifested by its oestrogen-antagonising action on the uterus of mice at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. The volatile oil was found to be loss active than quinidine in several tests. Also it did not counteract digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias. This drug has been experimentally shown to possess a tranquilizing and hypotensive activity in dogs and also induced hypotension in rats. The rhizome is used in ayurveda for the treatment of hysteria and other neurological disorders. It is very interesting to note that in conditions of insomnia and restlessness this drug was used by Sushruta to produce tranquility and sedation. it promotes the growth and blackness of hair. Infusion prepared from the fresh roots is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical states, palpitations and tension headache. It is also said to be useful in menopausal disturbances. Clinical trials were carried out with jatamansone in essential hypertension. Jatamansone has been used in febrile delirium and also in delirium tremens. In dysmenorrhoea, it is used for pain relief and a smooth menstrual flow.

LD(50) of Jatamansone was found to be 80.3 mg/kg while in the case of quinidine it is 55 mg/kg. This shows that intravenous toxicity in mice in the case of Jatamansone is less than that with quinidine. Large doses of Jatamansone can cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

Asparagus Adscendens Extracts

Asparagus Adscendens Extracts

Common Name : Safed Musli

Plant Parts Used : Tuberous Root and Rhizome


Description of Asparagus Adscendes: This is a thorny plant growing tall and erect. The rhizomes are 0.25-0.5 ern thick and white in colour.It is used as an aphrodisiac as well as to increase sperm count. Its use as general tonic is also well known all over India.


Characteristics and Constituents: Spirostanol glycosides (asparanin A and asparanin B) and two furostanol glycosides (asparoside A and B) have been isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits of Asparagus adscondens'. Sarsasapogenin and diosgenin have also been reported. Mucilaginous extract of Safed musli is also studied. The protein content is significantly high in the root.


Actions and Uses of Safed Musli: The demulcent properties have been described. The nutritive properties of the plant are ascribed to the protein content.

 

With the clinically recommended doses no adverse effects have been reported.

Asparagus Racemosus Extracts

Asparagus Racemosus Extracts

Common Name: Shatavari

Plant Parts Used: Roots and Leaves


Description of Asparagus Racemosus: The plant is a climber growing to 1-2 m in length. The leaves are like pine-needles, small and uniform. The inflorescence has tiny white flowers, in small spikes. The roots are finger-like, and clustered.


Characteristics and Constituents: Saponins are present in all species of Asparagus. In a comparative study, various members belonging to this plant species, including Asparagus racemosus, have been investigated for the presence of alkaloids, proteins, starch and tannin. Chemically, the variants from the southern part of India differed from the ones obtained from northern India, in having the A, fraction of the Asparagus glycosides. This fraction was absent in the North Indian species. Mucilage is also present in roots. Diosgenin was shown to occur in A. Racemosus leaves.


Actions and Uses: The plant's action as a galactogogue has been reported. In a study by Sahnis et al it was shown that in the estrogen-primed rats A. racemosus could cause both increase in the weight of mammary lobulo-alycolar tissue and the milk yield. It was attributed to the action of released corticosteroids or an increase in prolactin. Gaitonde and Jethmalani have observed antioxytocic and anti- ADH activity in the saponin fractions isolated from the roots of A. racemosus.

 

In a recent study by Sharma et al. Shatavari was shown to possess anabolic properties viz. growth promotion. The authors also consider the plant as an adaptogenic substance.

 

The shatavari plant has been used in ayurveda for various conditions. Its main use has been as a galactogogue (Stanya) to increase milk secretion during lactation. Bhavmishra mentions this use particularly. It is also used as a general tonic, and as an aphrodisiac.

 

In the doses of the root powder used clinically no adverse reactions have been reported. The bark of the plant is reported to be toxic.

Withania Somnifera Root Extracts

Withania Somnifera Root Extracts

Common Name: Ashwagandha

Plant Parts Used: Roots, Leaves and Seeds


Description of Withania Somnifera: A branched erect shrub, 0.3-1.5 m. Leaves 5-10 x 2.5-5 cm and ovate. Flowers greenish or lurid yellow, about 5 together in an umbellate cyme.


Characteristics and Constituents:
The roots contain choline, tropanol, pseudotropanol, cuscohygrene, 3-tigloyloxytropane, isopelletierine, anaferine and anahygrine. Withasomnine also has been isolated from the roots. The roots also have been reported to contain withaferin A and several other steroidal lactones including pharmacologically active with- anolides. These were also isolated as minor constituents of the leaves.


Actions and Uses: Acetone soluble alkaloid fraction of the roots showed C.N.S. depressant effect in dogs, albino rats and mice. Convulsions produced by metrazol were exacerbated in rats but the animals were protected against supraorbital electroshock seizures. It produced hypnosis in mice. Potentiation of barbiturate, ethanol and urethane- induced hypnosis were observed in mice.

 

Increase in 5 HT and depletion of calcium was also observed. Alcoholic extract potentiated thiopental-induced sleep in albino mice. It was not effective in antagonizing rnetrazol and strychnine induced convulsions and mortality7. The functional activity of normal human T lymphocytcs as assessed by local xenogenic graft via host reaction was also affected by withanolide and withaferine. Withaferine affects both T and B lymphoeytes. Adaptogenic antistress action of pi ant extract from defatted seeds was shown by the increase in duration of sleeping time, and prevention of the reduction of ascorbic acid and cortisol contents of adrenals in mice significantly in comparison with controls. Significant protection against aspirin and stress-induced ulcers was also observed in rats. A dose of 60 mglkg for three days showed 50% inhibition of milk-induced leucocytosis in albino rats.

 

The effect of Ashwagandharishta-medicated wine prepared from the roots of Withania somnifera was studied in 30 patients with anxiety neurosis. Moderate improvement in palpitation, tremors, headache, anorexia, lack of concentration, dyspepsia, fatigue and irritability was observed, while maximum improvement was seen in nervousness with 49 ml of Ashwagandharishta administered in two divided doses for one month. Root powder was studied in 46 patients of rheumatoid arthritis with a dose of 4, 6 or 9 gm/day for a period of 3 to 4 weeks. Pain and swelling disappeared completely in 14 patients; considerable improvement was observed in 10 patients and 11 patients showed mild improvement. There was no relief in 4 patients and 7 patients discontinued the treatments.

 

Root powder in a dose of 9 gm/day in divided doses used for 3 to 4 weeks in patients with arthritis was well tolerated. No side effects were observed with Ashwagandharishta in a dose of 40 ml/day in two divided doses given for a month to thirty patients with anxiety neurosis. In acute toxicity studies LD, 0 of the alcoholic extract of seeds was 1750 141 mg (P. O.) in albino mice.

Boswellia Serrata Extracts

Boswellia Serrata Extracts

Common Name: Shallaki / Salai Guggal

Plant Parts Used: Bark, Gum

Description of Boswellia Serrata: It is a deciduous medium-sized tree, with ash coloured, bark, peeling off in thin flakes. Young shoots and leaves pubescent. Leaves are long, opposite, sessile, variable in shape, ovate or lanceolate, crenate-serrate, obtuse, base acute and rounded. Flowers in auxiliary racemes, shorter than leaves. Calyx pubescent outside, lobes broadly triangular ovate. Petals long ovate. Drupe tringonous.

Characteristics and Constituents: Salai Gugaal gum contains arabinose, galactose, xylose, diastatic enzymes galacturonic acid, digitoxose, rhamnose, the volatile oil obtained from gum oleo-resin contains œ-pinene, œ-phellandrene, sesquiterpene alcohols, anisaidehyde phenols. Aqueous fraction gave poly-saccharides A and B. Three triperpene acids, œ, ß and ÿ-boswellic acids have been reported. The anti inflammatory and anti arthritic properties are attributed to the presence of ß-boswellic acid and related triterpene acids.

Actions and Uses: When tested on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and S-180 tumours transplanted in mice, it increased the life span of mice by 24% with ascites and decreased S-180 tumour by 24%. The essential oil of Boswellia Serrata was found to he anti-fungal. Anti-inflammatory activity and anti-bacterial activity of extracts have been demonstrated. The non-phenolic fraction of gum resin exhibited sedative and analgesic effects when tested in rats. The chemistry and pharma- cology of the gum has been reviewed.

It is used in rheumatic disorders. It is also used to improve appetite and in general weakness. It has an anti-diarrhoeal action.

With the recommended doses side effects are uncommon. Occasionally patients may complain of heartburn or warmth of hands and feet.

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