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Catena Trading India Private Limited - Manufacturer of manganese, antimony & bismuth in Dehradun, Uttarakhand....Read More

Manganese

Manganese

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Antimony

Antimony

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Bismuth

Bismuth

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Cadmium

Cadmium

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Cobalt

Cobalt

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Manganese
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Manganese

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such aspyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gann was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by redacting the dioxide with carbon.

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Antimony
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Antimony

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) anatomic 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. In the West, it was first isolated by Vannoccio Biringuccio and described in 1540, although in primitive cultures its powder has been used to cure eye ailments, as also for eye shadow, since time immemorial, and is often referred to by its Arabic name, kohl.

For some time, China has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine inhuman. The industrial methods to produce antimony are roasting and reduction or direct reduction of stibnite with iron.

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Bismuth
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Bismuth

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal, chemically resembles arsenicand antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but is often seen in air with a pink tinge owing to surface oxidation. Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element, and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals.

Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although until the 18th century it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties. The etymology is uncertain, but possibly comes from Arabic bi ismid, meaning having the properties of antimony[3] or German words weiße Masse or Wismuth (“white mass”), translated in the mid-sixteenth century to New Latin bisemutum.

Bismuth has long been considered the element with the highest atomic mass that is stable. However, in 2003 it was discovered to be weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via decay with a half life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe.

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Cadmium
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Cadmium

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals. Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration of cadmium in Earth’s crust is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). It was discovered in 1817 simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate.

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Cobalt
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Cobalt

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth’s crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.

Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic-containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold.

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Gallium Metal
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Gallium Metal

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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that exist in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room). The melting point of gallium is used as a temperature reference point. The alloy glisten (68.5% gallium, 21.5% indium, and 10% tin) has an even lower melting point of −19 °C (−2 °F), well below the freezing point of water. Since its discovery in 1875, gallium has been used as an agent to make alloys that melt at low temperatures. It has also been useful in semiconductors, including as a do pant.

Gallium is predominantly used in electronics. Gallium arsenide, the primary chemical of gallium in electronics, is used in microwave circuits, high-speed switching circuits, and infrared circuits. Semi conductive gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride produce blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. Gallium is also used in the production of artificial gadolinium gallium garnet for jewelry.

Gallium has no known natural role in biology. Gallium(III) behaves in a similar manner to ferric salts in biological systems and has been used in some medical applications, including pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals. Gallium thermometers are manufactured as an eco-friendly alternative to mercury thermometers.

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Magnesium
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Magnesium

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all Group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernova, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet’s mass and a large fraction of the planet’s mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.

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Manganese
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Manganese

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such aspyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gann was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by redacting the dioxide with carbon.

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Mercury
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Mercury

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Mercury is a chemical element with symbol hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/ha????dr????rd????r??m/). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium,gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar(mercuric sulfide). The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide.
Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, relays, fluorescent and other devices, though concerns about the element’s toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermostat- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental in some locales. It is used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light.

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Rhenium
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Rhenium

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Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth’s crust. The free element has the third-highest melting point and highest boiling point of any element, at 5,869 K (10,105 °F). Rhenium resembles manganese and technetium chemically and is mainly obtained as a by-product of the extraction and refinement of molybdenum and copper ores. Rhenium shows in its compounds a wide variety of oxidation states ranging from −1 to +7.
Discovered in 1925, rhenium was the last stable element to be discovered. It was named after the river Rhine in Europe.

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Silicon
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Silicon

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon’s character dates to its discovery. It was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1823. In 1808, it was given the name siliceous (from Latin: silex, hard stone or flint), with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several languages. The present English name was first suggested in 1817 to conform with the physically similar elements, carbon and boron.

Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure free element in the Earth’s crust. It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Over 90% of the Earth’s crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.

Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and often with little processing of the natural minerals. Such use includes industrial construction with clays, silica sand, and stone. Silicate is used in Portland cement for mortar and stucco, and mixed with silica sand and gravel to make concrete for walkways, foundations, and roads. Silicates are used in white ware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda and many other specialty glasses. Silicon compounds such as silicon carbide as used as abrasives and components high-strength ceramics.

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Titanium
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Titanium

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregory in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth’s crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium, is a popular photo catalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (ticl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium (ticl), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminum, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.

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Mazut Oils
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Mazut Oils

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The following page lists power stations that run on fuel oil that are larger than 50 MW in current installed capacity, which are either currently operational or under construction. Those power stations that are smaller than 50 MW, and those that are only at a planning/proposal stage, or those decommissioned, may be found in regional lists, listed at the end of the page.

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Diesel D2 Gasoil
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Diesel D2 Gasoil

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Standard diesel fuel (sometimes called diesel oil) comes in two grades: Diesel-1 (D1) and Diesel-2 (D2). Diesel or Diesel fuel in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. That’s why it’s also commonly called as AGO or Automotive Gas Oil. Diesel fuel is a type of fuel derived from the distillation of oil that is heavier than gasoline but lighter than engine oil and heavy oil.

D1 is similar to kerosene and is lighter than D2. While D2 is sold most of the time, D1 is sold during winter in very cold climates and not sold in hot weather countries. But D2 is easily available in most countries around the world. Despite rising awareness of environmental protection, D2 remains to be a key type of fuel for use in vehicles in many countries.

In particular, demand for D2 has risen significantly in Asia over the past years as a consequence of increasing number of cars. In view of the country sustained economic growth, D2 will continue to be undersupply in the China/India and market.

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Diesel Fuel D6
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Diesel Fuel D6

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D6 is also be known as Residual Fuel Oil and is of high-viscosity. This particular fuel oil requires preheating to 220 – 260 Degrees Fahrenheit. D6 is mostly used for generators.

D6 is a type of residual fuel, mainly used in power plants and larger ships. The fuel requires to be preheated before it can be used. It is not possible to use it in smaller engines or vessels/vehicles where it is not possible to pre-heat it. D6 is its name in the USA. In other parts of the world it has other names.

Residual means the material remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have boiled off. The residue may contain various undesirable impurities including 2 percent water and one-half percent mineral soil. D6 fuel is also known as residual fuel oil (RFO), by the Navy specification of Bunker C, or by the Pacific Specification of PS-400

Recent changes in fuel quality regulation now require further refining of the D6 in order to remove the sulfur, which leads to a higher cost. Despite this recent change, D6 is still less useful because of its viscosity as well as that it needs to be pre-heated before it can be used and contains high amounts of pollutants, such as sulfur. Since it requires pre-heating, it cannot be used in small ships or boats or cars. However large ships and power plants can use the residual fuel oil.

The price of D6 diesel traditionally rises during colder months as demand for heating oil rises, which is refined in much the same way.In many parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom and Australia, d6 diesel may be priced higher than petrol.

D6 Diesel Standards and Classification
CCAI and CII are two indexes which describe the ignition quality of residual fuel oil, and CCAI is especially often calculated for marine fuels.

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Jet Fuel A one
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Jet Fuel A one

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Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is restricted by the requirements for the product, for example, the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15.

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Diesel D two AGO
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Diesel D two AGO

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Standard diesel fuel (sometimes called diesel oil) comes in two grades: Diesel-1 (D1) and Diesel-2 (D2). Diesel or Diesel fuel in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. That’s why it’s also commonly called as AGO or Automotive Gas Oil. Diesel fuel is a type of fuel derived from the distillation of oil that is heavier than gasoline but lighter than engine oil and heavy oil.

D1 is similar to kerosene and is lighter than D2. While D2 is sold most of the time, D1 is sold during winter in very cold climates and not sold in hot weather countries. But D2 is easily available in most countries around the world. Despite rising awareness of environmental protection, D2 remains to be a key type of fuel for use in vehicles in many countries.

In particular, demand for D2 has risen significantly in Asia over the past years as a consequence of increasing number of cars. In view of the country sustained economic growth, D2 will continue to be undersupply in the China/India and market.

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Blend Crude Oil All Grade
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In the international petroleum industry, crude oil products are traded on various oil bourses based on established chemical profiles, delivery locations, and financial terms. The chemical profiles, or crude oil assays, specify important properties such as the oil’s API gravity. The delivery locations are usually sea ports close to the oil fields from which the crude was obtained (and new fields are constantly being explored), and the pricing is usually quoted based on F.O.B. (free on board, without consideration of final delivery costs).

UCHE The three most quoted oil products in North America’s West Texas Intermediate crude (WTI), North Sea Brent Crude, and the UAE Dubai Crude, and their pricing is used as a barometer for the entire petroleum industry, although, in total, there are 46 key oil exporting countries. Brent Crude is typically priced at about $2 over the WTI Spot price, which is typically priced $5 to $6 above the EIA’s Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost (IRAC) and OPEC Basket prices. WTI and Brent are quoted F.O.B specific locations, not F.O.B. the oilfields. For WTI, the delivery point is Cushing, OK; for Brent, it is Sullom Vole, an island north of Scotland.

Although crude oil assays evaluate various chemical properties of the oil, the two most important properties determining a crude’s value are its density (measured as API specific gravity) and its sulphur content (measured per mass). Crude oil is considered “heavy” if it has long hydrocarbon chains, or “light” if it has short hydrocarbon chains: an API gravity of 34 or higher is “light”, between 31-33 is “medium”, and 30 or below is “heavy”. Crude is considered “sweet” if it is low in sulphur content  Generally, the higher the API gravity (the “lighter” it is), the more valuable the crude.

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LNG
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LNG

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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, on and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F); maximum transport pressure is set at around 25 kpa (4 psi).

A typical LNG process. The gas is first extracted and transported to a processing plant where it is purified by removing any condensates such as water, oil, mud, as well as other gases such as CO2 and H2S. An LNG process train will also typically be designed to remove trace amounts of mercury from the gas stream to prevent mercury amalgamating with aluminum in the cryogenic heat exchangers. The gas is then cooled down in stages until it is liquefied. LNG is finally stored in storage tanks and can be loaded and shipped.

LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent that of diesel fuel.[1] This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is degasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use compressed. Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have hindered widespread commercial use. Despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020.(see LNG Trade)

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Base Oil
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Base Oil

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Base oils are used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids. Different products require different compositions and properties in the oil. One of the most important factors is the liquid’s viscosity at various temperatures. Whether or not a crude oil is suitable to be made into a base oil is determined by the concentration of base oil molecules as well as how easily these can be extracted.

Base oil is produced by means of refining crude oil. This means that the crude oil is heated in order that various distillates can be separated from one another. During the heating process, light and heavy hydrocarbons are separated – the light ones can be refined to make petrol and other fuels, while the heavier ones are suitable for bitumen and base oils.

There are large numbers of crude oils all around the world that are used to produce base oils. The most common one is a type of paraffinic crude oil, although there are also naphthenic crude oils that create products with better solubility and very good properties at low temperatures. By using hydrogenation technology, in which sulfur and aromatics are removed usinghydrogen under high pressure, you can obtain extremely pure base oils, which are suitable when quality requirements are particularly stringent.

Chemical substances – additives – are added to the base oil in order to meet the quality requirements for the end products in terms of, for example, friction and cleaning properties. Certain types of motor oils contain more than twenty percent

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Gasoline Octanes All Grades
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Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating (igniting). In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high performance gasoline engines that require higher compression ratios. In contrast, fuels with lower octane numbers (but higher acetone) are ideal for diesel engines, because diesel engines (also referred to as compression-ignition engines) do not compress the fuel, but rather compress only air and then inject fuel into the air which was heated by compression. Gasoline engines rely on ignition of air and fuel compressed together as a mixture, which is ignited at the end of the compression stroke using spark plugs. Therefore, high compressibility of the fuel matters mainly for gasoline engines. Use of gasoline with lower octane numbers may lead to the problem of engine.

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Urea Granular And Prilled
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Urea car amide (from the Greek word ουρ??α) is an organic compound with the chemical formula co(nh2)2. The molecule has two nh groups joined by a carbonyl (c=o) functional group.

Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals, and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic (ld50 is 15 g/kg for rats). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen excretion. The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (nh) with carbon (co) molecule in the urea cycle. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and is an important raw material for the chemical.

Wohler’s discovery in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry. It showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the laboratory without biological starting materials, contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism.

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Di Ammonium Phosphate DAP
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Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (chemical formula (NH) HPO, IUPAC named ammonium hydrogen phosphate) is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric.

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PET
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PET

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PET is used as a raw material for making packaging materials such as bottles and containers for packaging a wide range of food products and other consumer goods. Examples include soft drinks,detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and edible oils. PET is one of the most common consumer plastics used Polyethylene terephthalate also can be used as main material in making paper
The empty PET packaging is discarded by the consumer after use and becomes PET waste. In the recycling industry, this is referred to as “post-consumer PET.” Many local governments and waste collection agencies have started to collect post-consumer PET separately from other household waste. Besides that there is legislation in some countries which also applies to PET bottles.
It is debatable whether exporting circulating resources that damages the domestic recycling industry is acceptable or not In Japan, overseas market pressure led to a significant cost reduction in the domestic market. The cost of the plastics other than PET bottles remained high.

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HDPE
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HDPE

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High-density polyethylene (HDPE)orpolyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. It is sometimes called “alkathene” or “polythene” when used for pipes.[1] With a high strength-to-density ratio, HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes, and plastic lumber. HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number “2” as its resin identification code (formerly known as recycling symbol).
In 2007, the global HDPE market reached a volume of more than 30 million tons.

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Polyvinyl Chloride
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Polyvinyl Chloride

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Polyvinyl chloride, more correctly but unusually poly(vinyl chloride), commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber.

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LDPE
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LDPE

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Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene. It was the first grade of polyethylene, produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) using a high pressure process via free radical polymerization. Its manufacture employs the same method today. The EPA estimates 5.7% of LDPE (recycling number 4) is recycled. Despite competition from more modern polymers, LDPE continues to be an important plastic grade. In 2013 the worldwide LDPE market reached a volume of about US$33 billion.

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Polypropylene
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Polypropylene

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Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles(e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.

Polypropylene has a relatively slippery “low energy surface” that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes.

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ABS
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ABS

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ABS is a terpolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene. The proportions can vary from 15 to 35% acrylonitrile, 5 to 30% butadiene and 40 to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain of polybutadiene criss-crossed with shorter chains of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The nitrile groups from neighboring chains, being polar, attract each other and bind the chains together, making ABS stronger than pure polystyrene. The styrene gives the plastic a shiny, impervious surface. The polybutadiene, a rubbery substance, provides toughness even at low temperatures. For the majority of applications, ABS can be used between −20 and 80 °C (−4 and 176 °F) as its mechanical properties vary with temperature. The properties are created byrubber toughening, where fine particles of elastomer are distributed throughout the rigid matrix.

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Nylon
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Nylon

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Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, more specifically aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. They can be melt-processed into fibers, films or shapes.[1] The first example of nylon (nylon 66) was produced on February 28, 1935, by Carothers at DuPont’s research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications in fibers (apparel, flooring and rubber reinforcement), in shapes (molded parts for cars, electrical equipment, etc.), and in films (mostly for food packaging)

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Butyl Rubber
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Butyl Rubber

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Butyl rubber is a synthetic rubber, a copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene. The abbreviation IIR stands for isobutylene isoprene rubber. Polyisobutylene, also known as “PIB” or polyisobutene, (C4H8)n, is the homopolymer of isobutylene, or 2-methyl-1-propene, on which butyl rubber is based. Butyl rubber is produced by polymerization of about 98% of isobutylene with about 2% of isoprene. Structurally, polyisobutylene resembles polypropylene, having two methyl groups substituted on every other carbon atom. Polyisobutylene is a colorless to light yellow viscoelastic material. It is generally odorless and tasteless, though it may exhibit a slight characteristic odor.

Butyl rubber has excellent impermeability, and the long polyisobutylene segments of its polymer chains give it good flex properties.

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Tyers
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Tyers

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheel’s rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road while providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock.

The materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid (not pneumatic). Today, the majority of tires are pneumatic inflatable structures, comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, buses, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber (or other polymer) tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers, and wheelbarrows.

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Rubble
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Rubble

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Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in. Rubble naturally found in the soil is known also as ‘brash’ (compare corn brash). Where present, it becomes more noticeable when the land is ploughed or worked.

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Hafnium
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Hafnium

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Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, making it the penultimate stable element to be discovered (rhenium was identified two years later). Hafnium is named after Hafnium, the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was discovered.

Hafnium is used in filaments and electrodes. Some semiconductor fabrication processes use its oxide for integrated circuits at 45 nm and smaller feature lengths. Some super alloys used for special applications contain hafnium in combination with niobium, titanium, or tungsten.

Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors

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Indium
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Indium

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Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metallic element that is rare in Earth’s crust. The metal is very soft, malleable and easily fusible, with a melting point higher than sodium, but lower than lithium or tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. It has no obvious role in biological processes and common compounds are not toxic. It is most notably used in low melting point metal alloys such as solders, in soft metal high vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass.

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Tellurium
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Tellurium

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Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is occasionally found in native form, as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the universe as a whole than it is on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth’s crust, comparable to that of platinum, is partly due to its high atomic number, but also due to its formation of a volatile hydride which caused the element to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of the planet.

Tellurium was discovered in the Habsburg Empire, in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Muller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing tellurium and gold. Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for “earth”, tell us. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production.

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Petroleum Asphalt All Grade
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Penetration Grade Bitumen is a standard bitumen usually used as a Paving Grade Bitumen essential for road construction and for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties, and it’s very important once it bounds the aggregates and creates a unique cohesion and stability to the bituminous mix.

This grade of Bitumen is mainly used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses.

Penetration Grade Bitumen supplied by BITUMINA is petroleum grade bitumen, manufactured from fractional / vacuum distillation of crude oil. The Bitumen supplied by BITUMINA is produced from vacuum residue (short residue) feedstock.

Penetration Grade bitumen’s are specified by the penetration and softening point test. Designation is by penetration range only. The penetration grade bitumen’s have a thermoplastic property which causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures. This unique temperature/viscosity relationship is important when determining the performance parameters such as the adhesion, theology, durability and application temperatures of bitumen.

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JP54

JP54

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Germanium
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Germanium

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state.

Because very few minerals contain it in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth’s crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element ekasilicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral calledargyrodite. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, its combining ratios in the new element’s compounds agreed with Mendeleev’s predictions for a relative of silicon. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores.

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Catena Trading India Private Limited - Manufacturer of manganese, antimony & bismuth in Dehradun, Uttarakhand....Read More

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Private Limited Company
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Catena Trading India Private LimitedOffice No. 354-D, 2nd Floor, HCL Compound Opposite SBI Niranjanpur, Sharanpur Road, Opposit SBI Niranjanpur, Niranjanpur,
Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India

Deojeet Singh

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