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Dhawan Clinic

Indira Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
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Pioneers in the industry, we offer Bad Obstetric Treatments Services, Infertility Treatments Services, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOS Treatments Services, Intrauterine Insemination IUI Treatments Services, High Risk Pregnency Treatments Services and Diagnosing Infertility Treatments Services from India.

Bad Obstetric Treatments Services
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Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, Treatments

A woman is said to have 'bad obstetric history (BOH)' if she has experienced any of the following events on two or more occasions in the past
-Consecutive spontaneous abortions.
-Early neonatal deaths.
-Stillbirths.
-Intrauterine fetal deaths.
-Intrauterine growth retardation.
-Congenital anomalies in the fetus.

However, it is the occurrence of three consecutive pregnancy losses that constitutes the classic definition of BOH. This condition is seen in 1-2% of couples.1

CAUSES The most common causes of recurrent miscarriages are shown in Table 1.2

IMMUNOLOGICAL CAUSES OF BOH The immune factors associated with pregnancy loss are classified as autoimmune and alloimmune factors.


AUTOIMMUNE FACTORS These factors include the presence of certain autoantibodies, namely

-Antiphospholipid antibodies These antibodies enhance the coagulability of blood, making it clot more easily than is normal during pregnancy. The clots thus formed in the placental blood vessels may impede the fetus' blood supply, resulting in miscarriage. Antiphospholipid antibodies are present in 15% of women with recurrent miscarriage. The association between phospholipid antibodies and recurrent miscarriage is referred to as Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). The main types of antiphospholipid antibodies are

-Lupus Anticoagulant (LA).
-Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies (IgG and IgM).
-Anti-b2 Glycoprotein I antibodies.1
-Antinuclear antibodies Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) are circulating immunoglobulins, e.g., IgG, IgA and IgM, which attack the whole nucleus or its components.1 These antibodies have also been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss, even in patients without evidence of overt autoimmune disease, but further investigation is needed into their exact role in causing recurrent miscarriages. Therefore, measuring ANAs is not recommended as part of an evaluation of recurrent miscarriage.
-Antithyroid antibodies Unlike ANA, antithyroid antibodies are known as independent markers for an increased risk of miscarriage. However, since the pathophysiology involved in this phenomenon is unclear, antithyroid antibody testing is not recommended in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

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Infertility Treatments Services
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Infertility refers to an inability to conceive after having regular unprotected . Infertility can also refer to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term. In many countries infertility refers to a couple that has failed to conceive after 12 months of regular without the use of contraception.

Studies indicate that slightly over half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the rest are caused by either disorders or unidentified factors.

According to The Mayo Clinic, USA
-About 20% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the man.
-About 40% to 50% of cases of infertility are due to a problem in the woman.
-About 30% to 40% of cases of infertility are due to problems in both the man and the woman.

According to the Department of Health and Human Services, USA, approximately 10% to 15% of couples in the USA are infertile - meaning they have not conceived after at least one year of regular, unprotected .
Many cases of apparent infertility are treatable. Infertility may have a single cause in one of the partners, or it could be the result of a combination of factors.
Use this page to learn what causes infertility. Also get an overview of risk factors and how infertility is diagnosed. We outline the treatment options available, including IVF and surgery, and the complications caused by infertility.

Contents of this article
-Chances of conceiving within one year
-Risk factors of infertility
-Causes of infertility in women
-Causes of infertility in men
-Diagnosing infertility
-Treatments for infertility
-Complications of infertility treatment

You will also see introductions at the end of some sections to any recent developments that have been covered by MNT's news stories.
Chances of conceiving within one year In Europe, North America and much of the world approximately 85% of couples will conceive within one year if they have regular unprotected . Averages in the UK are as follows (National Health Service)

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome PCOS Treatments Services
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Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, Treatments

What is polycystic ovarian syndrome
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman's levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts (benign masses on the ovaries). PCOS can affect a women's menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, between 1 in 10 and 1 in 20 women of childbearing age has PCOS. The condition currently affects up to 5 million women in the United States.

What causes PCOS
While the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, doctors believe that hormonal imbalances and genetics play a role. Women are more likely to develop PCOS if their mother or sister also has the condition.
Overproduction of the hormone androgen may be another contributing factor. Androgen is a male hormone that women's bodies also produce. Women with PCOS often produce higher-than-normal levels of androgen. This can affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation. Excess insulin(a hormone that helps convert sugars and starches into energy) may cause high androgen levels.

Symptoms of PCOS
Symptoms of PCOS typically start soon after a woman begins to menstruate for the first time. The type and severity of symptoms varies from person to person. The most common characteristic of PCOS is irregular menstrual periods. Difficulty getting pregnant may be another reason that leads to diagnosis.

Because PCOS is marked by a decrease in female hormones, this condition may cause women to develop certain masculine characteristics, such as
-excess hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
-decrease in breast size
-deeper voice
-hair loss

Other symptoms may include

-acne
-weight gain
-pelvic pain
-depression
-infertility

While not symptoms of the disease, many women with PCOS have other concurrent health problems, such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. These are linked to the weight gain typical in women with PCOS.

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Intrauterine Insemination IUI Treatments Services
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Uses Risks And Success Rate

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a fertility treatment that involves placing inside a woman's uterus to facilitate fertilization. The goal of IUI is to increase the number of that reach the fallopian tubes and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization.
IUI provides the an advantage by giving it a head start, but still requires a to reach and fertilize the egg on its own. It is a less invasive and less expensive option compared to in vitro fertilization. .

When is IUI used
The most common reasons for IUI are a low count or decreased mobility.
However, IUI may be selected as a fertility treatment for any of the following conditions as well
-Unexplained infertility
-A hostile cervical condition, including cervical mucus problems
-Cervical scar tissue from past procedures which may hinder the sperms' ability to enter the uterus
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IUI is not recommended for the following patients
-Women who have severe disease of the fallopian tubes
-Women with a history of pelvic infections
-Women with moderate to severe endometriosis

How does IUI work
Before intrauterine insemination, ovulation stimulating medications may be used, in which case careful monitoring will be necessary to determine when the eggs are mature. The IUI procedure will then be performed around the time of ovulation, typically about 24-36 hours after the surge in LH hormone that indicates ovulation will occur soon.
A semen sample will be washed by the lab to separate the semen from the seminal fluid. A catheter will then be used to insert the directly into the uterus. This process maximizes the number of cells that are placed in the uterus, thus increasing the possibility of conception.
The IUI procedure takes only a few minutes and involves minimal discomfort. The next step is to watch for signs and symptoms of pregnancy.

What are the risks of IUI
The chances of becoming pregnant with multiples is increased if you take fertility medication when having IUI. There is also a small risk of infection after IUI.

How successful is IUI
The success of IUI depends on several factors. If a couple has the IUI procedure performed each month, success rates may reach as high as 20% per cycledepending on variables such as female age, the reason for infertility, and whether fertility drugs were used, among other variables.
While IUI is a less invasive and less expensive option, pregnancy rates from IUI are lower than those from IVF. If you think you may be interested in IUI, talk with your doctor to discuss your options.
Some couples want to explore more traditional or over the counter efforts before exploring infertility procedures. If you are trying to get pregnant and looking for resources to support your efforts, we invite you to check out the fertility product and resource guide provided by our corporate sponsor. Review resource guide here.
However, if you are looking for testing or options to increase your fertility chances of conception, you can find a fertility specialist with the search tool below

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High Risk Pregnency Treatments Services
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Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, Treatments

I have a high-risk pregnancy. What does that mean?
If your pregnancy is high-risk, it means you need extra care to help you have a healthy pregnancy and baby. If you're being treated for a lifelong (chronic) condition, you may have known for a long time that becoming pregnant carries additional risks. Or you may find out you have a high-risk pregnancy because of a problem that develops for the first time during pregnancy.

Either way, having a high-risk pregnancy means it's more likely that you or your baby will have health problems during pregnancy, birth, or after delivery. These could be very minor problems, but in some cases, a high-risk condition can be life threatening for a woman or her baby. That's why a high-risk pregnancy requires extra monitoring by a healthcare provider.
Being told that your pregnancy is high-risk can be a shock, and you're likely to feel a mix of emotions. You might find it difficult to enjoy your pregnancy because you're worried about your own health or your baby's health.
Ask your provider for information about your pregnancy and how to prevent or manage problems. Building a support network, talking to your partner, family and friends, or other women in a similar situation, can help you feel better informed and more in control.
It's likely you'll hear and read about many issues and complications that could affect your pregnancy. But having a high-risk pregnancy doesn't mean you won't have a healthy baby. So don't give up hope.
What causes a high-risk pregnancy?
Many factors can make a pregnancy high-risk. You may be considered high risk if you had problems in a previous pregnancy - if you delivered a baby early, for example. This doesn't mean you'll definitely experience the same problems again, but your provider will want to keep a closer eye on you as your pregnancy progresses.
Some health conditions can make your pregnancy high-risk too. See a doctor before you start trying to get pregnant if you have a chronic condition, so you can be as healthy as possible before you conceive. There are many health conditions that affect pregnancy including:

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