The air pump pumps compressed air into the exhaust manifold and in a few cases to the catalytic converter. The oxygen in the pressurized air helps to burn quite a bit of any unburned hydrocarbons (fuel) and thereby converts the poisonous carbon monoxide into good old carbon dioxide. A belt from the engine drives the air pump. It has little vanes (thin, flat, curved fins) that draw the air into the compression chamber. Here, the air is compressed and sent off to the exhaust manifold where it speeds up the emissions burning process. Stainless steel nozzles are used to shoot the air into the exhaust manifold, because they will not burn. Some engines use a pulse air injection system. Pulses of exhaust gases are used by the system to operate an air pump that delivers air into the exhaust system.
The chief source of power of the electrical system is the alternating-current generator, or alternator. Its shaft is driven by the same belt that spins the fan and it keeps the engine running. It converts mechanical energy into alternating-current electricity, which is then channelled through diodes that alter it to direct current for the electrical system and for recharging the battery.
The device is used to determine whether the electrical system is charging, discharging, or staying "level". The gauge should dip when the engine is started, then go up as the alternator re- charges the battery. After a few minutes, it should go to its middle position.
A ball bearing is an antifriction bearing consisting of a hardened inner and outer race with a series of hardened steel balls separating the two. "Sealed" bearings have plastic dust seals and are greased only at the time of manufacture.
The battery is the vehicle’s initial source of energy used to start the engine. The battery is then taken over the alternator to supply the car's electrical needs and to restore energy to the battery. A 12-volt storage battery consists of layers of positively and negatively charged lead plates that, together with their insulated separators, make up each of six two-volt cells. The fluid in the cells is electricity-conducting liquid (electrolyte) that is usually two-thirds distilled water and one-third sulphuric acid. Spaces between the immersed plates provide the most exposure to the electrolyte. The interaction of the plates and the electrolyte produces chemical energy that becomes electricity when a circuit is formed between the negative and positive battery terminals
These are used to connect the battery to the rest of the starting and charging circuits. The battery cables must be of sufficient size to carry such heavy current as a starting motor will draw about 200 amps of current. The cables are prone to corroding as they are close to the battery and therefore it is important that the cables make good electrical contact with the cable clamps. Similarly, clamps must make good electrical contact with the battery posts. Any looseness or corrosion could result in high resistance and consequent voltage drop.
The points which connect the wires are called the battery points. The “post” type terminals are being phased out by the "side-mount" type of terminals which use a bolt to screw into the side of the battery and clamp on the battery wire. The vapours from battery acid causes corrosion to form on the lead surfaces, which makes it necessary to clean these periodically. Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly as the corrosion on the terminals is acidic.
The body shell is a fairly complex assortment of large steel sections. These sections have been stamped into specific shapes that make up the body of your car. These parts are designed to do many jobs at once; protect the occupants from the elements and in collisions, provide solid mounts for all other systems, and to slice through the air with minimal resistance. The body also has one other job which is usually important to the owner... it has to look good! Although the zillions of parts that make up a car are all very important, it is also important that the car's body be able to make riding in a car bearable for you. The body and the suspension system give us a smooth ride, and cushion us from the jarring of the road. Improvements in the body of the car are carried out so that it should go forward with as little up-and-down and side-to-side movement as possible.
The brake pedal is located on the left side of the accelerator pedal and it slows down or stops the vehicle. The brake shoes and friction pads are forced into contact with the brake drums and rotors to slow the rotation of the wheels. The friction between the tires and the road surface then slows the speed of the vehicle. The pedal is solidly mounted to the firewall, and works as a force-multiplying lever. If the power assist fails, the pedal's leverage allows you to generate pounds of pressure at each wheel cylinder. A brake pedal should not sink more than an inch or two, no matter how hard it is pressed with the foot. Warning: Any change in this is a cause for serious concern.
A catalytic converter prevents noxious gases like hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from polluting the environment by converting them into water vapour and carbon dioxide. The catalytic converter is installed in the exhaust line, between the exhaust manifold and the muffler, and makes use of chemicals that act as a catalyst. The harmful gases enter the catalytic converter, which is a kind of stainless steel container. This is lined with chemicals such as aluminium oxide, platinum and palladium. These chemicals cause the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to change into water vapour and carbon dioxide. Some converters have a third lining of chemicals, platinum and rhodium, that reduce nitrogen oxides (three-way, dual bed converter).
The clutch allows connecting and disconnecting the engine and the transmission while starting up and during shifts. Friction plates route the rotation of the engine crankshaft to the gears, and then to the wheels. It takes the rotation up slowly, so that you aren't off to a screeching start. In a manual transmission, the clutch is disengaged when you press the pedal down. The pedal works the thrust pad, and it presses levers in the middle of the clutch cover. Doing all this lifts the pressure plate away from the clutch plate. The flywheel (which is turned by the crankshaft from the transmission shaft) gets disconnected. When you lift the clutch pedal, springs force the pressure plate and clutch plate against the flywheel. The clutch plate friction linings allow it to slide before becoming engaged. The sliding causes a smooth start instead of a jolt.
One way to activate the throw-out fork of the clutch is by using a system of levers and cables. These levers and cables are connected between the clutch pedal and the throw-out fork. When you press the clutch pedal with your foot, the pressure is transmitted to the fork through the cable and lever arrangement.
The clutch plate is a thin, steel, disc whose centre is connected to the transmission input shaft by a grooved piece of metal, or hub. The disc is covered with material that is similar to the brake linings. This material allows the clutch to slip smoothly and quietly.
The condenser is a long tube that goes back and forth through a multitude of cooling fins. It is mounted in front of the radiator to take advantage of the forced air provided by the fan and the motion of the car. As the highly pressurized refrigerant (vapour) flows into the condenser, it gives off heat and warms the condenser. This causes the condenser to be hotter than the forced air coming through the condenser. The condenser hands its heat off to the forced air and turns the refrigerant back into cool liquid in the expansion valve, where it heads back to the evaporator.
The crankshaft converts the up and down motion of the pistons into a rotary motion. It provides the turning motion for the wheels. It works much like the pedals of a bicycle, converting up-down motion into rotational motion. The crankshaft is usually either alloy steel or cast iron. The crankshaft is connected to the pistons by the connecting-rods. Some parts of the shaft do not move up and down; they rotate in the stationary main bearings. These parts are known as journals. There are usually three journals in a four cylinder engine.
The drive shaft, or propeller shaft, connects the transmission output shaft to the differential pinion shaft. Since all roads are not perfectly smooth, and the transmission is fixed, the drive shaft has to be flexible to absorb the shock of bumps in the road. Universal, or "U-joints" allow the drive shaft to flex (and stop it from breaking) when the drive angle changes. There are two types of drive shafts, the Hotchkiss drive and the Torque Tube Drive.
"Dynamic" balance is the equal distribution of weight on each side of the vertical centreline of the wheel and tire assembly. Unbalance on either or both sides of a plane of rotation, called dynamic unbalance, causes the wheels to bounce, resulting in flat spots on the tire tread and worn ball joints, tie rod ends, steering gears, and shock absorbers. Dynamic unbalance in the front wheels will cause them to wobble.
Used previously for heavier vehicles, they have only recently become operational in cars. The replacement types usually use a diaphragm arrangement like the mechanical pumps, except that it is actuated by an electrical solenoid. It uses a small turbine wheel driven by a constant speed electric motor. The entire unit is located in the fuel tank and submerged in the fuel itself. When the engine is running the pump pump operates continuously, thus exerting a constant pressure which supplies the maximum fuel demands of the engine. When less fuel is required, the pump does not deliver at full potential, because the turbine is not a positive displacement type like the mechanical pump. Consequently, the turbine will run without pumping fuel and so, needs no means of varying fuel delivery rate like its mechanical counterpart. Since the fuel can flow past the spinning turbine blades, there is no need for pump inlet and outlet valves nor is there any need to vary its speed. A relay for the electric fuel pump is used to complete the circuit to the fuel pump. This cuts off current to the fuel pump in the event of an accident.
The evaporator is a long tube, or coil, that goes back and forth through a multitude of cooling fins. The refrigerant is a liquid when it enters the evaporator. A fan blows warm air over the evaporator and causes the liquid refrigerant to boil. After it has absorbed the heat from the warm air, the warm air isn't warm anymore. The same blower that blows the warm air (that is now "cool" air) over the evaporator keeps on blowing it into the interior of your car, and you have -- air conditioning! The evaporator also removes the moisture from the air coming through its fins and turns it into water. The water just drains off. The temperature of the evaporator coil can go from 33 degrees F to 0 degrees F. If it goes below 32 degrees F, the moisture that's supposed to drain off the coils will freeze. This makes for a very (surprise!) inefficient system, so a thermostatic switch is used to connect and disconnect it to the compressor as necessary.
The fan clutch is a small fluid coupling with a thermostatic device and controls a variable-speed fan. It ensures that the fan will rotate at just the right speed to keep the engine from overheating, and reduces drive to the fan when it is no longer needed. The fan clutch has a fluid coupling partly filled with silicone oil designed for just that purpose. When the temperature of the air passing through the radiator rises, the heat alerts a bimetal coil spring to "uncoil" or expand. When it expands, it allows just a little more oil to enter the fluid coupling, so the fluid coupling starts to rotate the fan. If the air coming through the radiator is cool, the opposite happens; the coil spring contracts, the oil leaves the fluid coupling and the fan slows. Slowing the fan when it is not needed reduces fuel consumption, makes less noise and saves engine power. Sometimes a flat bimetal strip spring is used instead of a coil spring; it bows out and in when the temperature rises and drops, letting oil in and out of the fluid coupling
Weather and water proof
The large wheel connected to the crankshaft provides the momentum to keep the crankshaft turning without the application of power, through the energy generated during the power stroke. This energy is also used to drive the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons during the three idle strokes of the 4-stroke cycle. This makes for a smooth engine speed. The flywheel forms one surface of the clutch and is the base for the ring gear.
The basic structure of the vehicle is the frame and it provides a good anchor point for the suspension system. There are two types of frames; integral frames, or ‘unibody’, and conventional frames. A conventional frame is basically a ‘one-piece’ frame; or two ‘one-piece’ frames fastened together. These frames are extremely rigid to keep all the parts of the car in perfect alignment, which are attached to it. It is constructed of heavy steel and welded or cold riveted together. Cold riveting keeps the rivets from shrinking after they cool off. The integral, or unibody, frame is just the opposite. With this type of frame, the body parts are used to structurally strengthen the entire car, and all of the sections are welded into one piece. Sometimes the parts of the body and the suspension system are attached and reinforced. Also, some unibody frames have partial front and rear frames for attaching the engine and suspension members.
The fuel pump has three functions: to deliver enough fuel to supply the requirements of an engine under all operating conditions, to maintain enough pressure in the line between the carburettor and the pump to keep the fuel from boiling, and to prevent vapour lock. Excessive pressure causes the carburettor float needle off its seat its seat resulting in high fuel level in the float chamber, leading to high fuel consumption. Highest pressure occurs at idling speed and the lowest at top speed.
The fuel tank stores the excess fuel until it is needed for operation of the vehicle. The fuel tank has an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe. The outlet pipe has a fitting for fuel line connection and may be located in the top or in the side of the tank. The lower end is about one-half inch above the bottom of the tank so that collected sediment will not be flushed out into the carburettor. The bottom of the tank contains a drain plug so that tank may be drained and cleaned.
Brakes tend to lose their effectiveness if they get hot. Cool air to be directed onto the brakes, increasing braking potential and reducing brake fade. The air dam has a small opening, behind which runs a small tube to the backing plate. This allows cool air to be directed onto the brakes, increasing braking potential and reducing brake fade.
A capillary tube from a cycling switch lets the switch know what the temperature is in the evaporator. This switch turns the compressor on and off to keep the evaporator temperature at about 32 to 45 degrees F. The relay switch keeps moisture from freezing on the evaporator core.
The dash board, behind the steering wheel displays the control panel of the car. Duplicate fragments of the control panel are found in the interior of your vehicle, such as automatic door locks, extra light switches, etc. Many functions of the car are carried out through the dash board, like turning on the headlights, windshield wipers, horn, turn signals, air conditioning, cassette player, etc. It also contains all of your gauges; gas, temperature, tachometer, etc., which enables the monitoring of the operating conditions of your engine and charging system, fuel level, oil pressure and coolant temperature. It ensures that all the controls are within the drivers reach.
The drive wheel is the end of the axle shaft; it has lugs protruding from it. The lugs are separate pieces that are mounted in the drive wheel. The drive wheel bolts onto the brake drum and the wheel rim of the car itself. It is usually a disc about six or seven inches in diameter. Occasionally the drive wheel and the axle shaft are all one piece.
Injectors are opened by solenoids operated by an electronic control unit, as opposed to mechanical injection systems. Since the fuel has no resistance to overcome, other than insignificant friction losses, the pump pressure can be set at very low values, consistent with the limits of obtaining full atomization with the type of injectors used. The control unit, depending on the operating conditions of the engine, determines the amount of fuel to be injected. The conditions depend on manifold pressure, accelerator enrichment, cold-start requirements, idling conditions, outside temperature and barometric pressure. The systems work with constant pressure and with ‘variable timed’ or ‘continuous flow’ injection. The advantages. To begin with, it has fewer moving parts, no need for ultra-precise machining standards and quieter operation. Also, there is less power loss, a low electrical requirement, no need for special pump drives, no critical fuel filtration requirements, no surges or pulsations in the fuel line. More than anything else, it costs lesser than its mechanical counterpart.
Usually constructed of cast iron, the exhaust manifold is a pipe that conducts the exhaust gases from the combustion chambers to the exhaust pipe. It has smooth curves in it for improving the flow of exhaust. The exhaust manifold is bolted to the cylinder head, and has entrances for the air that is injected into it. It is usually located under the intake manifold. A header is a different type of manifold; it is made of separate equal-length tubes.
Wear and tear resistant
The cap on the brake fluid reservoir has a hole for air, or is vented, to allow the fluid to expand and contract without creating a vacuum or causing pressure. A rubber diaphragm goes up and down with the fluid level's pressure, and keeps out any dust or moisture.
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No. 202, Madina Manzil, Sai Baba Nagar, Survey No. 61/62 Kondhwa Khurd, Sai Baba Nagar, Kondhwa Khurd,
Pune-411048, Maharashtra, India