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ELECTRONICS DEVICE CIRCUITS LAB

Our product range includes a wide range of Transistor Cascode Amplifier, Model : Hiq-cco, Class A Power Amplifier(T) Model: HiQ-CAPAMP, Darlington Amplifier Model: HiQ-DAMP, Common Emitter Amplifier Model: Hiq-cea, Class A Power amplifier. and Fet Characteristics Model: Hiq-fet.

Transistor Cascode Amplifier,  Model : Hiq-cco
  • Transistor Cascode Amplifier,  Model : Hiq-cco
  • Transistor Cascode Amplifier,  Model : Hiq-cco
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The cascode amplifier configuration consists of a common emitter stage followed by a common base stage. The two major advantages of a cascode amplifier are a low load resistance (which results in an improved frequency response) and a high output frequency response) and a high output resistance. 

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Class A Power Amplifier(T) Model: HiQ-CAPAMP
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There are various classes of power amplifiers, including classes A, AB, B and C. We shall be concerned here with the class A linear power amplifier. A class A amplifier is one whose emitter-to-base remains forward-biased during the entire input signal. If, in addition, the output signal is an exact reproduction of the input, the amplifier is said to be linear. A linear Class ‘A’ Power Amplifier therefore does not distort or change the shape of the signal waveform and delivers audio power to a load.

If the collector current flows at all times during the full cycle of the signal, the power amplifier is known as Class A Power Amplifier.

Model: HiQ-CAPAMP

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Darlington Amplifier Model: HiQ-DAMP
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Description:

In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the second transistor. Because of direct coupling dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe)Ib1. If Darlington connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current for last stage is (1+hfe) n times Ib1. Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits it is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection, the leakage current of the first transistor and overall leakage current may be high, which is not desired.

Model: HiQ-DAMP

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Common Emitter Amplifier Model: Hiq-cea
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A common emitter amplifier circuit with capacitive and output is shown in fig 1. The coupling capacitor blocks D.C and thus prevents the source resistance from changing the bias voltage at the base. The signal voltage causes the base voltage to vary above and below its D.C bias level. The resulting variation in base current produces a large variation in collector current because of the current gain of the transistor. As the collector current increases, the voltage drop RC (4.7) also increases causing the collector voltage to decrease. The collector current varies above and below its.

MODEL: HiQ-CEA

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Class A Power amplifier.
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Class A Power amplifier.

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Introduction:-

        An Amplifier is a device for amplifying a signal with minimum distortion so as to make the signal more useful.

        In Class ‘A’ operation the quiescent point and the input signal are such that the current in the output circuit flows for all times. Class ‘A’ amplifier operates over liner region of its characteristic, giving minimum distortion. The zero signal values of Ic and VCE are known as the operating point.

        Capacitors CB and CC are the input and output coupling capacitors. DC supply Vcc is provided within the trainer kit. R1, R2 provides necessary DC Biasing current to the transistor.

 

 

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Fet Characteristics Model: Hiq-fet
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Description:

Field-Effect Transistors (or FETS) can be divided into two General types: JFETS (Junction Field Effect Transistor) and MOSFETS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET) can be further divided into two subgroups the enhancement and the depletion types. All FETS have Gate, Source, and Drain terminals. The Source and Drain terminals are connected to opposite ends of a region called the channel and the gate terminal is connected to a region called the gate. FETS are also classified by the type of material from which the channel is made. FET consists of P-type and N-type Silicon Bars containing two PN junctions at the sides. The bar forms the conducting channel for charge carriers. If the bar is N-type, it is called N-Channel FET. If the bar is p-type, it is called P-Channel FET.

Model: HiQ-FET

 

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MOS Amplifier Model: HiQ-MAMP
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Description:

The main goal of a MOSFET amplifier, or any amplifier for that matter, is to produce an output signal that is a faithful reproduction of its input signal but amplified in magnitude. This input signal could be a current or a voltage, but for a mosfet device to operate as an amplifier it must be biased to operate within its saturation region.
Model: HiQ-MAMP

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Two Stage RC-Coupled Amplifier Model: HiQ-TSRCA
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Description:

An electronic Amplifier receives an electrical signal as it’s input terminals and develops an output signal, which is an amplified replica of the input signal. Unlike an electric transformer, it increases the signal power over that obtainable from the input signal source.

Model: HiQ-TSRCA

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Voltage And Current Feed Back Amplifier Trainer  Model: HiQ-VCFA
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Current Series Feedback Amplifier

In An ordinary amplifier circuit, the emitter resistor is bypassed with a capacitor of large value (say, 25° F). As long as this by pass with a capacitor is present, the effective input to the amplifier is the same as the signal supplied by the source.

Voltage Series Feedback Amplifier

In voltage series feedback circuit voltage proportional across load resistor RL is the Input voltage to the feedback circuit. Output of feedback circuit is the input voltage.

Model: HiQ-VCFA

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Voltage Regulator Trainer Using 723
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Description:

The typical applications of 723 is it drives 150mA load currents without external power transistor, typically 0.02% input regulation and 0.03% load regulation , adjustable current limiting capability, input voltages to 40Volts, and output is widely adjustable from 2 to 37V.

The IC 723 is monolithic integrated circuit voltage regulators featuring high ripple rejection, excellent input and load regulation, excellent temperature stability, and low stand by current . The circuit consists of a temperature compensated reference voltage amplifier, an error amplifier, a 150 milliampere output transistor, and an adjustable output current limiter.

 

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Zener Diode Characteristics Model:HiQ-ZDC
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Description:

A properly doped crystal diode, which has a sharp breakdown voltage, is known as  a Zener Diode.  This voltage is determined as the time of manufacture and is in the  range of 2 to 200V. The important characteristic of this diode is that the Zener voltage is constant whatever may be the current through the diode (within the  limits of the current rating). In the forward biased direction the zener diode functions like an ordinary  diode.

Model: HiQ-ZDC

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Astable Multivibrator Using 555
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ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

Astable Multivibrator often called a free-running Multivibrator. External Trigger input is not required to operate the 555 as an Astable Configuration. However, the time during which the output is either high or low is determined by two external components Resistor & Capacitor.

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Complementary Symmetry Configuration Model: Csc
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THEORY:

        The Complementary Symmetry circuit uses two transistors with identical characteristics. However, one transistor is a PNP, the other an NPN. Fig 1 shows an idealized complementary symmetry amplifier.
 Q1 is a NPN & Q2 is a PNP transistor, each connected as an emitter follower , with the emitters connected together. The collector of Q1 goes to +VCC, a positive supply. The bases of Q1 and Q2, connected together, receive the input signal from some external circuit. When sine wave is applied to the input of the amplifier, during the positive alternation the base of Q1 is driven positive relative to its emitter, turning on Q1, the NPN transistor. Q1 remains on during this positive alternation. During the positive alternation, Q2, a PNP transistor, remains reverse-biased and is cut-off. During the negative alternation, Q2 is forward biased by the signal and turns on while Q1 is cut-off. Fig. shows that current in Q2 is opposite in direction to current in Q1. This is because Q1 is an NPN, Q2 a PNP transistor. The voltage developed at the output terminals is a sine wave, like the input. Since the Q1&Q2 complement each other and the circuit is symmetrical. This arrangement is called Complementary Symmetry. Complementary circuits can be common emitter as well as common collector, and they may be operated Class A as well as Class B.

Complementary-Symmetry amplifiers require very careful design to prevent thermal runaway and destruction of the power transistors. Unbalance or leakage in power transistors can cause multiple failures

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Monostable Multivibrator Using 555.
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INTRODUCTION:

 The 555 timer is used in number of applications. It can be used as Monostable, Astable multivibrator. Dc to Dc converters, Digital logic Probes, Analog frequency meters, Temperature measurement and control, Infrared transmitters, Burglar alarms, Voltage regulators and Time delay circuits.

               555 is 8 pin IC either operate on free running (Astable MV) mode or in one shot (Monostable MV) mode. Pin configuration is as shown Fig (1.a). It can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or oscillation. 

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Operational Amplifier Applications.
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INTRODUCTION:

In this trainer non-trainer input to output characteristics of operational amplifier can be done. Some of the non-linear applications are differentiator and integrator. In addition to non linear applications, study of op-amp as sine, square and triangle wave generator can also be studied in this trainer.

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Sampling Theorem Trainer, Model: HiQ STM207
  • Sampling Theorem Trainer, Model: HiQ STM207
  • Sampling Theorem Trainer, Model: HiQ STM207
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Circuit Description:-

Pulse and Modulating Signal Generator:- 

          A 4.096 MHz clock is used to derive the modulating signal, which is generated by an oscillator circuit comprising a 4.096 MHz crystal and three 74HC04 (U9) inverter gates. This 4.096 MHz clock is then divided down in frequency by a factor of 4096, by binary counter 74HC4040 (U10), to produce 50% duty cycle, 1 KHz square wave on pin no. 1 of U10, and 2 KHz square wave on pin no. 15. The

frequency is selectable by means of SW1. This input of fourth order low pass filter U11 (TL072) is used to produce sine wave from the square wave. The amplitude of this sine wave can be varied.

 Sampling Circuit:- 

 

          The IC DG211 (U3) is used as Analog switch which is used in Pulse Amplitude Modulation in this circuit.  The Modulation signal & Pulse signal are given as the input to TL074 (U2), 7400(U1) IC’s respectively. These IC output are fed to the inputs of  the DG211.

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Summing Amplifier, Model: SAMP
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SUMMING AMPLIFIER:

 Op-amp may be used to perform summing operation of several input signals in inverting in inverting and non-inverting mode. The input signals to be summed up are given to inverting terminal or non-inverting terminal through the input resistance to perform inverting and non-inverting summing operations respectively.

 

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Common Collector Amplifier
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Introduction:- shows the circuit diagram of a Common Collector Transistor Amplifier. Since the collector resistance is made to zero, the collector is at ac ground that is why the circuit is also called as a grounded collector amplifier or this configuration is having voltage gain close to unity and hence a change in base voltage appears a an equal change across the load at the emitter hence the name Emitter Follower. In other words the emitter follows the input signal.

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Common Base Amplifier.
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Common Base Amplifier.

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THEORY:

A properly biased transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as an amplifier. Considering ultimate function of the amplifier, A voltage amplifier increases the voltage level of the input signal. So, it is designed to produce the largest possible voltage gain with only a little power being drawn from the output by the load.

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Common Collector characteristics
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INTRODUCTION:

         The Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is fabricated with three semiconductor regions. The three regions are called emitter, base and collector. There are two P-N junctions in the transistor. The first junction called base emitter junction joins the base region and the emitter region. The second junction called base-collector junction joins base region and collector region. There are two types of transistors:

1.        N-P-N Transistor

2.        P-N-P Transistor  

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Single Tuned Amplifier, Model: HiQ-STA
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Transistor-Current Sweep Generator Model: TCSG
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Zener Regulated Power Supply Model : HiQ-ZRPS
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Differentiator & Integrator
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Double Tuned Voltage Amplifier Model: DVA
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Two Stage JFET common Source Amplifier.
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Current To Voltage Conversion, Model: HiQ-CV_CONV
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INTRODUCTION:

 

Photocell, photodiode and photovoltaic cell give an output current that is proportional to an incident radiant energy or light. The current through these devices can be converted to voltage by using a current-to-voltage converter and thereby the amount of light or radiant energy incident on the photo-device can be measured.

 

Above figure shows an op-amp used as I to V converter since the  (-) input terminal is at virtual ground, no current flows through Rs and current ii flows through the feedback resistor Rf. thus the output voltage V0=- ii Rf. It may be pointed out that the lowest current that this circuit can measure will depend upon the bias current IB of the op-amp. This means that 741(IB=3nA) can be used to detect lower currents. The resistor Rf is sometimes shunted with a capacitor Cf to reduce high frequency noise and the possibility of oscillations.

 

 Formula: Output voltage =- [RsRf/ (Rs+Rf)]Is

Rs=Source resistance,

Rf=Feedback resistance,

Is= Current source.

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An Amplifier is a device for amplifying a signal with minimum distortion so as to make the signal more useful.

In Class ‘A’ operation the quiescent point and the input signal are such that the current in the output circuit flows for all times. Class ‘A’ amplifier operates over liner region of its characteristic, giving minimum distortion . The zero signal values of Ic and VCE are known as the operating point.

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Class-C operation means that the collector current flows for less than 180 Degrees of the AC cycle. This implies that the collector current of a class-A amplifier is highly non-sinusoidal because current flows in pulses.

To avoid the distortion that would occur with a purely resistive load, a class-C amplifier always drives a resonant tank circuit. This results in a sinusoidal output voltage.

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Description:
A comparator finds its importance in circuits where two voltage signals are to be compared and to be distinguished on which is stronger. A comparator is also an important circuit in the design of non-sinusoidal waveform generators as relaxation oscillators.In an op-amp with an open loop configuration with a differential or single input signal has a value greater than 0, the high gain which goes to infinity drives the output of the op-amp into saturation. Thus, an op-amp operating in open loop configuration will have an output that goes to positive saturation or negative saturation level or switch between positive and negative saturation levels and thus clips the output above these levels. This principle is used in a comparator circuit with two inputs and an output. The 2 inputs, out of which one is a reference voltage (Vref) is compared with each other.

Model:HiQ-INNIN

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Description:

If a sinusoidal signal  is applied o to a transmission network composed of a linear element, in the steady state, the output signal will have a wave shape which is a precise reproduction of the input wave shape. The process whereby the form of a non-sinusoidal signal is altered by transmission through a linear network is called "linear wave shaping". Model: HiQ-LCD

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Description:

The sample and hold circuit, as its name implies, samples an input signal and holds on to its last sampled value until the input is sampled again. In this circuit the E-MOSFET works as a switch that is controlled by the sample and hold control voltage Vs, and the capacitor C serves as a storage element. The circuit operates as follows. The analog signal Vi to be sampled is applied to the drain, and sample and hold control voltage Vs is applied to the gate of the E-MOSFET.

Model: HiQ-SHCRT

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Description:

Op-amp may be used to perform summing operation of several input signals in inverting in inverting and non-inverting mode. The input signals to be summed up are given to inverting terminal or non-inverting terminal through the input resistance to perform inverting and non-inverting summing operations respectively.

Model: HiQ-SAMP

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Description:

The Principle use of transistor is as an amplifier. The analysis or design of a transistor amplifier requires knowledge. A transistor amplifier can raise the level of the applied ac input at its output. The transistor amplifier operation may be either large signal operation or small signal operation. Large signal operation of a transistor may be studied graphically. However, for amplification of small signals, a transistor amplifier provides linear amplification. For analyzing the behavior of such a small linear amplifier, we may make use of small signal linear amplifier; we may make use of small signal equivalent circuit, which represents the operation of transistor over the active region.

Model: HiQ-TBC

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Description:

An operational Amplifier IC LM741 used as a voltage to current. It is used for signal transmission of instrumentation like RTD THEROCOUPLE single from long distance to control circuits. Two type of current converter are, 

 

1.   V to I converters with floating load. 

2.   V to I converters with grounded load. 

 

Floating load V to I converters are used as low voltage ac and dc voltmeters, diode, LED and Zener diode testers. Voltage to current converters Grounded load is used in testing such devices as Zener and LED forming a ground load. 

 

Model: HiQ-VC_CON 

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Description:

The Differential Amplifiers Amplify The Difference Between Two Voltages Making This Type Of Operational Amplifier Circuit A Substractor Unlike A Summing Amplifier Which Adds Or Sums Together The Input Voltages. This Type Of Operational Amplifier Circuit Is Commonly Known As A Differential Amplifier Configuration.

Model: HiQ-DAMP

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Description:

The 555 timer is used in number of applications. It can be used as Monostable, Astable multivibrator. Dc to Dc converters, Digital logic Probes, Analog frequency meters, Temperature measurement and control, Infrared transmitters, Burglar alarms, Voltage regulators and Time delay circuits.

Model: HiQ-MSMV

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