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We are proud to introduce ourselves as one the leading service provider of NDT(Non Destructive Testing ) established in the year 2012,
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Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)
Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) orpenetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials, although for ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is often used instead for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks, surface porosity, leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.
DPI is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing. After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw where an invisible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type of dye used - fluorescent or nonfluorescent (visible).
The test surface is cleaned to remove any dirt, paint, oil, grease or any loose scale that could either keep penetrant out of a defect, or cause irrelevant or false indications. Cleaning methods may include solvents, alkaline cleaning steps, vapor degreasing, or media blasting. The end goal of this step is a clean surface where any defects present are open to the surface, dry, and free of contamination. Note that if media blasting is used, it may "work over" small discontinuities in the part, and an etching bath is recommended as a post-blasting treatment.
The excess penetrant is then removed from the surface. The removal method is controlled by the type of penetrant used. Water-washable, solvent-removable, lipophilicpost-emulsifiable, or hydrophilic post-emulsifiable are the common choices. Emulsifiersrepresent the highest sensitivity level, and chemically interact with the oily penetrant to make it removable with a water spray. When using solvent remover and lint-free cloth it is important to not spray the solvent on the test surface directly, because this can remove the penetrant from the flaws. If excess penetrant is not properly removed, once the developer is applied, it may leave a background in the developed area that can mask indications or defects. In addition, this may also produce false indications severely hindering your ability to do a proper inspection.

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Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferroelectric materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a magnetic field into the part. The piece can be magnetized by direct or indirect magnetization. Direct magnetization occurs when the electric current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field is formed in the material. Indirect magnetization occurs when no electric current is passed through the test object, but a magnetic field is applied from an outside source. The magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to the direction of the electric current which may be either alternating current (AC) or some form of direct current (DC) (rectified AC).
A technician performs MPI on a pipeline to check for stress corrosion cracking using what is known as the "black and white" method. No indications of cracking appear in this picture; the only marks are the 'footprints' of the magnetic yoke and drip marks.
A close-up of the surface of a (different) pipeline showing indications of stress corrosion cracking (two clusters of small black lines) revealed by magnetic particle inspection. Cracks which would normally have been invisible are detectable due to the magnetic particles clustering at the crack openings. The scale at the bottom is numbered in centimetres.
The presence of a surface or subsurface discontinuity in the material allows the magnetic flux to leak, since air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as metals. Ferrous iron particles are then applied to the part. The particles may be dry or in a wet suspension. If an area of flux leakage is present the particles will be attracted to this area. The particles will build up at the area of leakage and form what is known as an indication. The indication can then be evaluated to determine what it is, what may have caused it, and what action should be taken, if any.

There are several types of electrical currents used in MPI. For a proper current to be selected one needs to consider the part geometry, material, the type of discontinuity one is looking for, and how far the magnetic field needs to penetrate into the part.

  • Alternating current (AC) is commonly used to detect surface discontinuities. Using AC to detect subsurface discontinuities is limited due to what is known as the skin effect, where the current runs along the surface of the part. Because the current alternates in polarity at 50 to 60 cycles per second it does not penetrate much past the surface of the test object. This means the magnetic domains will only be aligned equal to the distance AC current penetration into the part. The frequency of the alternating current determines how deep the penetration.
  • Direct current (DC, full wave DC) is used to detect subsurface discontinuities where AC can not penetrate deep enough to magnetize the part at the depth needed. The amount of magnetic penetration depends on the amount of current through the part.[1]DC is also limited on very large cross-sectional parts how effective it will magnetize the part.
  • Half wave DC (HWDC, pulsating DC) work similar to full wave DC, but allows for detection of surface breaking indications and has more magnetic penetration into the part than FWDC. HWDC is advantageous for inspection process as it actually helps move the magnetic particles during the bathing of the test object. The aid in particle mobility is caused by the half-wave pulsating current waveform. In a Typical mag pulse of 0.5 seconds there are 15 pulses of current using HWDC. This gives the particle more of an opportunity to come in contact with areas of magnetic flux leakage.

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Hardness Testing
Hardness is the measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness.
Hardness is dependent on ductility, elastic stiffness, plasticity, strain, strength, toughness, viscoelasticity, and viscosity
Common examples of hard matter are ceramics, concrete, certain metals, and superhard materials, which can be contrasted with soft matter.
Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to fracture or permanentplastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. The principle is that an object made of a harder material will scratch an object made of a softer material. When testing coatings, scratch hardness refers to the force necessary to cut through the film to the substrate. The most common test is Mohs scale, which is used in mineralogy. One tool to make this measurement is the sclerometer.
Another tool used to make these tests is the pocket hardness tester. This tool consists of a scale arm with graduated markings attached to a four wheeled carriage. A scratch tool with a sharp rim is mounted at a predetermined angle to the testing surface. In order to use it a weight of known mass is added to the scale arm at one of the graduated markings, the tool is then drawn across the test surface. The use of the weight and markings allows a known pressure to be applied without the use for complicated machinery.

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Positive Material Identification (PMI)

Portable XRF Spectrometry system can quickly and easily identify material composition and quantify elements in parts or test samples without the need for wet chemistry or destructive testing.

P.M.I. provides chemical analysis and material grade identification for most alloys, metal powders, sintered alloys, metallic coatings, and precious metals.

The versatile, hand held, rapid analyzer employs multiple calibration and testing options with a built-in data library for on-the-spot, accurate material matching, identification, and analysis.

For petroleum and petrochemical refining facilities, the emphasis on safety and accident prevention has never been greater - increased public scrutiny, stepped-up industrial safety regulations, and more stringent OSHA oversight and fines. This means that positive material identification (PMI) in alloys used throughout the physical plant is no longer a choice, but a necessity. Simply relying on spot testing of parts and subassemblies is too risky and totally unacceptable. Today's best practices include 100% positive material testing of all critical materials.

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Visual Testing (VT)

The most basic NDT method is visual examination, one of the best tool used in manufacturing process to identify surface defects / imperfections on the spot assisted by devices that magnify, qualify or quantify the conditions being evaluated.

Inaccessible areas of parts can be inspected using remote visual examination method. In this flexible fibroscope or boroscope is used with xenon lamp to view internals of the part and can be video graphed. Measurements of the flaw can also be easily done.

Most NDT inspections start with a visual inspection.
Visual inspection is a common method of quality control, data acquisition, and data analysis. Visual Inspection, used in maintenance of facilities, mean inspection of equipment and structures using either or all of raw human senses such as vision, hearing, touch and smell and/or any non-specialized inspection equipment. Inspections requiring Ultrasonic, X-Ray equipment, Infra-red, etc. are not typically regarded as Visual Inspection as these Inspection methodologies require specialized equipment, training and certification.A study of the visual inspection of small integrated circuits found that the modal duration of eye fixations of trained inspectors was about 200 msec. The most accurate inspectors made the fewest eye fixations and were the fastest. When the same chip was judged more than once by an individual inspector the consistency of judgment was very high whereas the consistency between inspectors was somewhat less. Variation by a factor of six in inspection speed led to variation of less than a factor of two in inspection accuracy. Visual inspection had a false positive rate of 2% and a false negative rate of 23%. 

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Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

In ultrasonic testing (UT), very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz and occasionally up to 50 MHz are launched into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. A common example is ultrasonic thickness measurement, which tests the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion.

Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is a form of non-destructive testing used in many industries including aerospace, automotive and other transportationsectors.
There are two methods of receiving the ultrasound waveform, reflection and attenuation. In reflection (or pulse-echo) mode, the transducer performs both the sending and the receiving of the pulsed waves as the "sound" is reflected back to the device. Reflected ultrasound comes from an interface, such as the back wall of the object or from an imperfection within the object. The diagnostic machine displays these results in the form of a signal with an amplitude representing the intensity of the reflection and the distance, representing the arrival time of the reflection. In attenuation (or through-transmission) mode, a transmitter sends ultrasound through one surface, and a separate receiver detects the amount that has reached it on another surface after traveling through the medium. Imperfections or other conditions in the space between the transmitter and receiver reduce the amount of sound transmitted, thus revealing their presence. Using the couplant increases the efficiency of the process by reducing the losses in the ultrasonic wave energy due to separation between the surfaces. 

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Small Controlled Area Radiography (SCAR)
Objective of Small Controlled Area Radiography (SCAR) system is used in open field radiography using special projectors with Selenium 75 source and controlled beam collimators and RadShield as additional shielding mat to bring down the radiation level at less than 0.2 mR/hr at 5 meter maximum. This system is approved by competent authorities and in the field this has proven beyond doubt that SCAR system can be used in construction site without hindering other contractor's work 24x7.

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Radiographic Testing (RT)
Radiographic Testing (RT), or industrial radiography, is a nondestructive testing (NDT) method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelengthelectromagnetic radiation (high energy photons) to penetrate various materials.
Either an X-ray machine or a radioactive source (Ir-192, Co-60, or in rare cases Cs-137) can be used as a source of photons. Neutron radiographic testing (NR) is a variant of radiographic testing which uses neutrons instead of photons to penetrate materials. This can see very different things from X-rays, because neutrons can pass with ease through lead and steel but are stopped by plastics, water and oils.
Since the amount of radiation emerging from the opposite side of the material can be detected and measured, variations in this amount (or intensity) of radiation are used to determine thickness or composition of material. Penetrating radiations are those restricted to that part of the electromagnetic spectrum of wavelength less than about 10 nanometres.
The beam of radiation must be directed to the middle of the section under examination and must be normal to the material surface at that point, except in special techniques where known defects are best revealed by a different alignment of the beam. The length of weld under examination for each exposure shall be such that the thickness of the material at the diagnostic extremities, measured in the direction of the incident beam, does not exceed the actual thickness at that point by more than 6%. The specimen to be inspected is placed between the source of radiation and the detecting device, usually the film in a light tight holder or cassette, and the radiation is allowed to penetrate the part for the required length of time to be adequately recorded.
The result is a two-dimensional projection of the part onto the film, producing a latent image of varying densities according to the amount of radiation reaching each area. It is known as a radiograph, as distinct from a photograph produced by light. Because film is cumulative in its response (the exposure increasing as it absorbs more radiation), relatively weak radiation can be detected by prolonging the exposure until the film can record an image that will be visible after development. The radiograph is examined as a negative, without printing as a positive as in photography. This is because, in printing, some of the detail is always lost and no useful purpose is served.
The result is a two-dimensional projection of the part onto the film, producing a latent image of varying densities according to the amount of radiation reaching each area. It is known as a radiograph, as distinct from a photograph produced by light. Because film is cumulative in its response (the exposure increasing as it absorbs more radiation), relatively weak radiation can be detected by prolonging the exposure until the film can record an image that will be visible after development. The radiograph is examined as a negative, without printing as a positive as in photography. This is because, in printing, some of the detail is always lost and no useful purpose is served.
Before commencing a radiographic examination, it is always advisable to examine the component with one's own eyes, to eliminate any possible external defects. If the surface of a weld is too irregular, it may be desirable to grind it to obtain a smooth finish, but this is likely to be limited to those cases in which the surface irregularities (which will be visible on the radiograph) may make detecting internal defects difficult.

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The flow of eddy currents is affected by fissures, constrictions or other discontinuities that cause distortions in the cross section through which the current is made to flow. Thus, the eddy current technique is useful for detecting the wall thickness of thin materials as well as measuring localized discontinuities.

The thickness of the part must be within the depth of penetration (skin depth), eddy currents is dependent upon material properties and operating frequency.

This method can detect very small flaws in or near the surface of the material. Changes in material thickness, and changes in material properties can also be measured.
Eddy-current testing uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. There are several limitations, among them: only conductive materials can be tested, the surface of the material must be accessible, the finish of the material may cause bad readings, the depth of penetration into the material is limited by the materials' conductivity, and flaws that lie parallel to the probe may be undetectable.
In a standard eddy current testing a circular coil carrying current is placed in proximity to the test specimen (which must be electrically conductive).The alternating current in the coil generates changing magnetic field which interacts with test specimen and generates eddy current. Variations in the phase and magnitude of these eddy currents can be monitored using a second 'receiver' coil, or by measuring changes to the current flowing in the primary 'excitation' coil. Variations in the electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability of the test object, or the presence of any flaws, will cause a change in eddy current and a corresponding change in the phase and amplitude of the measured current. This is the basis of standard (flat coil) eddy current inspection, the most widely used eddy current technique.
However, eddy-current testing can detect very small cracks in or near the surface of the material, the surfaces need minimal preparation, and physically complex geometries can be investigated. It is also useful for making electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements.
The testing devices are portable, provide immediate feedback, and do not need to contact the item in question. Recently tomographic notion of ECT has been explored see for example.
Another eddy-current testing technique is pulsed eddy-current testing. A major advantage of this type of testing ist that there is no need for direct contact with the tested object. The measurement can be performed through coatings, weather sheetings, corrosion products and insulation materials.[1] This way even high temperature inspections are possible. Compared to the conventional eddy-current testing, pulsed eddy-current testing allows multi-frequency operation. 

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Ferrite Test

Ferrite Test

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This is useful to monitor ferrite content accurately in the austenitic weld. This helps in evaluating corrosion resistance of the part in harsh environment.

Austenitic, Duplex stainless steels require suitable ferrite/austenite phase balance that provides adequate mechanical properties and improved corrosion performance.

Ferrite testing on welding and piping products with our portable hand held battery operated Fischer Feritscope MP30E-S ferrite testers.

Our Clients require us to undertake testing of substantial quantities of sub-sea wellhead Duplex and Super Duplex welded piping spools and their associated components.

Heat treatment to these products may result in ferrite levels dropping below certain percentage levels, this can subsequently show that incorrect heat treatment has been applied to the product or the presence of third phases in the material which can be detrimental to the in service life of Duplex and Super Duplex.

We test using methods that ensure obtained ferrite readings are correct and are truly relative to the samples under test.

We can also test certain austenitic weld metals for deposited ferrite content.

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Leak Test

Leak Test

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There is a constantly growing need for products with hermetically closed elements, vessels and tubes. Envelopes with greater or smaller vacuum tightness had to assure a satisfactory isolation between external atmosphere and inside. Leak spots in closed systems are usually connections, gaskets, welded and brazed joints, defects in material etc.

Different leak testing methods and techniques are known, each testing is suitable only for a selected leak rate or for fixed forms and technologies.

Halogen leak detectors are used in the detector-probe mode, requiring that the system be pressurized with a gas containing an organic halide. The exterior of the system is then scanned with a sniffer probe sensitive to traces of the halogen -bearing gas.

Mass spectromeleaks - to see if there is any leakage and to find where the leaks are so corrective action can be taken. There are several methods for leak testing, depending on the situation. Sometimes leakage of fluid may make a sound which can be detected. Tires, engine radiators, and maybe some other smaller vessels may be tested by pressurizing them with air and submerging them in water to see where air bubbles come out to indicate a leak. If submerging in water is not possible, then pressurization with air followed by covering the area to be tested with a soap solution is done to see if soap bubbles form, which indicate a leak. Other types of testing for gas leaks may involve testing for the outleaking gases with sensors which can detect that gas, for example - special sensing instruments for detecting natural gas. U.S. federal safety law now requires natural gas companies to conduct testing for gas leaks upstream of their customer's gas meters. Where liquids are used, special color dyes may be added to help see the leakage. Other detectable substances in one of the liquids may be tested, such as saline to find a leak in a sea water system, or detectable substances may even be deliberately added to test for leakage.

Newly constructed, fabricated, or repaired systems or other vessels are sometimes tested to verify satisfactory production or repair.Plumbers often test for leaks after working on a water or other fluid system. A vessel or system is sometimes pressure tested by filling with air and the pressure monitored to see if it drops, indicating a leak. A very commonly used test after new construction or repair is ahydrostatic test, sometimes called a pressure test. In a hydrostatic test, a system is pressurized with water to look for a drop in pressure or to see where it leaks out. Helium testing may be done to detect for any very small leakage such as when testing certain diaphragm or bellows valves, which are made to be practically leak-proof. Helium and hydrogen have very small molecules which can go through very small leaks.
Leak testing is part of the non-destructive test NDT portfolio that can be applied to an art to verify its conformity; depending on material, pressure, leak tightness specifications, different methods can be applied. International standards has been defined to assist in these choices. For example BS EN 1779:1999; it applies to assessment of leak tightness by indication or measurement of gas leakage, but excludes hydrostatic, ultrasonic or electromagnetic methods. Other standards also apply :

  • BS EN 13184:2001 Non-destructive testing. Leak testing. Pressure change method
  • BS EN 13185:2001 Non-destructive testing. Leak testing. Tracer gas method
  • BS EN 13192:2002 Non-destructive testing. Leak testing. Calibration of reference leaks for gases

ters as leak detectors are most sensitive instruments for leak detection. Helium is normally used as a tracer gas, because of its small mass and atom volume assures greater sensitivity.

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Servicing & Maintenance

Servicing & Maintenance of NDT Instruments is an important aspect for the success of NDT operations.

It is quite unusual for an equipment to be used consistently without needing repair. Malfunction includes equipment not operating in a safe manner, not operating at all, not functioning normally. We repair properly and on timely basis.

It is essential in the NDT operations to complete the expected output within time schedule. This is possible. If all equipment's are timely serviced & maintained in systematic manner including calibrations, operation becomes effective.

We also offer preventative maintenance contracts to ensure a customer's equipment is both calibrated and operating at peak performance.

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We are proud to introduce ourselves as one the leading service provider of NDT(Non Destructive Testing ) established in the year 2012,

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Year of Establishment

2012

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27BCFPA0066E1Z7
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