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IXAR Private Limited

Mumbai, Maharashtra
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IXAR Private Limited - Service Provider of phased array ultrasonic inspection, ultrasonic testing & stress relieving since 1985 in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
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Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection
A Method for inspecting a component includes exiting a number of transducers forming an array to produce an ultrasonic transmission beam focused into the component. The array and the component are separated by a standoff. A Number of echo signals are generated using the transducers, and the echo signals are processed in a number of channels. The processing includes both dynamical focus and providing a dynamic aperture on receive, both of which compensate for refraction of the beam at the component / standoff interface. A single-turn inspection method includes

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Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is a form of non-destructive testing used in many industries including aerospace, automotive and other transportation sectors. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. To illustrate the general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration as illustrated below will be used.
A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulses.
Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when a echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be gained.
The technique is also commonly used to determine the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion.
Ultrasonic testing uses high frequency, highly directional sound waves to measure material thickness, find hidden internal flaws, or analyze material properties in metals, plastics, composites, ceramics, rubber, and glass. Using frequencies beyond the limit of human hearing, ultrasonic instruments generate shorts bursts of sound energy that are coupled into the test piece, and the instrument monitors and analyzes reflected or transmitted wave patterns to generate test results.

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Stress Relieving
Machining induces stresses in parts. The bigger and more complex the part, the more the stresses. These stresses can cause distortions in the part long term. If the parts are clamped in service, then cracking could occur. Also hole locations can change causing them to go out of tolerance. For these reasons, stress relieving is often necessary.
Typically, the parts that benefit from stress relieving are large and complex weldments, castings with a lot of machining, parts with tight dimensional tolerances and machined parts that have had a lot of stock removal performed. Stress relieving is done by subjecting the parts to a temperature of about 75 ºC (165 ºF) below the transformation temperature,line A1 on the diagram, which is about 727 ºC (1340 ºF) which is about 727 ºC (1340 ºF) of steel—thus stress relieving is done at about 650 ºC (1202 ºF) for about one hour or till the whole part reaches the temperature.
This removes more than 90% of the internal stresses. Alloy steels are stress relieved at higher temperatures. After removing from the furnace, the parts are air cooled in still air.

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Magnetic Particle Testing
The particles that are used for magnetic particle inspection are a key ingredient as they form the indications that alert the inspector to defects. Particles start out as tiny milled (a machining process) pieces of iron or iron oxide. A pigment (somewhat like paint) is bonded to their surfaces to give the particles color. The metal used for the particles has high magnetic permeability and low retentivity. High magnetic permeability is important because it makes the particles attract easily to small magnetic leakage fields from discontinuities, such as flaws. Low retentivity is important because the particles themselves never become strongly magnetized so they do not stick to each other or the surface of the part. Particles are available in a dry mix or a wet solution. Either this:The first step in a magnetic particle inspection is to magnetize the component that is to be inspected.
If any defects on or near the surface are present, the defects will create a leakage field. After the component has been magnetized, iron particles, either in a dry or wet suspended form, are applied to the surface of the magnetized part. The particles will be attracted and cluster at the flux leakage fields, thus forming a visible indication that the inspector can detect. Or this:The part is magnetized.  Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity.  This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions. In theory, magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a relatively simple concept. It can be considered as a combination of two nondestructive testing methods: magnetic flux leakage testing and visual testing. Consider the case of a bar magnet. It has a magnetic field in and around the magnet. Any place that a magnetic line of force exits or enters the magnet is called a pole. A pole where a magnetic line of force exits the magnet is called a north pole and a pole where a line of force enters the magnet is called a south pole.
When a bar magnet is broken in the center of its length, two complete bar magnets with magnetic poles on each end of each piece will result. If the magnet is just cracked but not broken completely in two, a north and south pole will form at each edge of the crack. The magnetic field exits the north pole and reenters at the south pole. The magnetic field spreads out when it encounters the small air gap created by the crack because the air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as the magnet can. When the field spreads out, it appears to leak out of the material and, thus is called a flux leakage field. If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet, the particles will be attracted to and cluster not only at the poles at the ends of the magnet, but also at the poles at the edges of the crack. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspecti

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Positive Material Indentification
Is performed more and more frequently as clients realize the need to assure proper materials are being utilized in their installations. We utilize the Niton XLP-818 Alloy Analyzer to identify and sort alloy materials using X-ray fluorescence technology. When subjected to filtered radiation of varying intensities, a materials alloy composition can be determined by the fluorescence of the various materials with specified ranges
Positive Material Identification (PMI) is the identification and analysis of various metal alloys by their chemical composition through nondestructive methods. PMI can be conducted on-site or in the laboratory. PMI helps our customers choose the right materials for their application from this vast market. In production, PMI confirms that the materials our customers have received are, in fact, the materials they've purchased. At all stages, PMI services allow clients to build successful business plans for their products and processes.
For petroleum and petrochemical facilities, the emphasis on safety and accident prevention has never been greater - increased public scrutiny, stepped-up industrial safety regulations, and more stringent OSHA oversight and fines.  This means that positive material identification (PMI) in alloys used throughout the physical plant is no longer a choice, but a necessity.  Simply relying on spot testing of parts and subassemblies is too risky and totally unacceptable.  Today's best practices include 100% material testing of all critical materials.

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Eddy Current

Eddy Current

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Is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements.  Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack. Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is preferred for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting and forging defects, cracks, and leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components. DPI is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing.
After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw where a visible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type of dye used - fluorescent or nonfluorescent (visible). Penetrants are classified into sensitivity levels. Visible penetrants are typically red in color, and represent the lowest sensitivity. Fluorescent penetrants contain two or more dyes that fluoresce when excited by ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation (also known as black light). Since Fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed in a darkened environment, and the excited dyes emit brilliant yellow-green light that contrasts strongly against the dark background, this material is more sensitive to small defects.

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Radiography is the use of ionizing radiations to view objects in a way that can't be seen otherwise. It is not to be confused with the use of ionizing radiation to change or modify objects; radiography's purpose is strictly for viewing. Industrial radiography has grown out of engineering, and is a major element of nondestructive testing (NDT). It is a method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short X-rays and Gamma rays to penetrate various materials.

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A Method for inspecting a component includes exiting a number of transducers forming an array to produce an ultrasonic transmission beam focused into the component. The array and the component are separated by a standoff. A Number of echo signals are generated using the transducers, and the echo signals are processed in a number of channels.

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Machining induces stresses in parts. The bigger and more complex the part, the more the stresses. These stresses can cause distortions in the part long term. If the parts are clamped in service, then cracking could occur. Also hole locations can change causing them to go out of tolerance.

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The particles that are used for magnetic particle inspection are a key ingredient as they form the indications that alert the inspector to defects. Particles start out as tiny milled (a machining process) pieces of iron or iron oxide. A pigment (somewhat like paint) is bonded to their surfaces to give the particles color.

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Dye penetrant inspection  also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is preferred for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting and forging defects, cracks, and leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.

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Is performed more and more frequently as clients realize the need to assure proper materials are being utilized in their installations. We utilize the Niton XLP-818 Alloy Analyzer to identify and sort alloy materials using X-ray fluorescence technology.

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Remote field testing (RFT) is an electromagnetic method of nondestructive testing whose main application is finding defects in steel pipes and tubes. RFT may also referred to as RFEC (remote field eddy current) or RFET (remote field electromagnetic technique). An RFT probe is moved down the inside of a pipe and is able to detect inside and outside defects with approximately equal sensitivity (although it can not discriminate between the two). Although RFT works in nonferromagnetic materials such as copper and brass, its sister technology eddy-current testing is more effective in these materials.

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Is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements.  Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack.

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Dye penetrant inspection  also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is preferred for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting and forging defects, cracks, and leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.
DPI is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing. After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw where a visible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type of dye used - fluorescent or nonfluorescent (visible). Penetrants are classified into sensitivity levels. Visible penetrants are typically red in color, and represent the lowest sensitivity. Fluorescent penetrants contain two or more dyes that fluoresce when excited by ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation (also known as black light). Since Fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed in a darkened environment, and the excited dyes emit brilliant yellow-green light that contrasts strongly against the dark background, this material is more sensitive to small defects.
 When selecting a sensitivity level one must consider many factors, including the environment under which the test will be performed, the surface finish of the specimen, and the size of defects sought. One must also assure that the test chemicals are compatible with the sample so that the examination will not cause permanent staining, or degradation. This technique can be quite portable, because in its simplest form the inspection requires only 3 aerosol spray cans, some paper towels, and adequate visible light. Stationary systems with dedicated application, wash, and development stations, are more costly and complicated, but result in better sensitivity and higher sample through-put.

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Remote field testing (RFT) is an electromagnetic method of nondestructive testing whose main application is finding defects in steel pipes and tubes. RFT may also referred to as RFEC (remote field eddy current) or RFET (remote field electromagnetic technique). An RFT probe is moved down the inside of a pipe and is able to detect inside and outside defects with approximately equal sensitivity (although it can not discriminate between the two). Although RFT works in nonferromagnetic materials such as copper and brass, its sister technology eddy-current testing is more effective in these materials. sfsd
The basic RFT probe consists of an exciter coil (also known as a transmit or send coil) which sends a signal to the detector (or receive coil). The exciter coil is pumped with an AC current and emits a magnetic field. The field travels outwards from the exciter coil, through the pipe wall, and along the pipe. The detector is placed inside the pipe two to three pipe diameters away from the exciter and detects the magnetic field that has travelled back in from the outside of the pipe wall (for a total of two through-wall transits). In areas of metal loss, the field arrives at the detector with a faster travel time (greater phase) and greater signal strength (amplitude) due to the reduced path through the steel. Hence the dominant mechanism of RFT is through-transmission
Commonly applied to examination of boilers, heat exchangers, cast iron pipes, and pipelines.
No need for direct contact with the pipe wall.
Probe travel speed around 30 cm/s (1 foot per second), usually slower in pipes greater than 3 inch diameter.
Less sensitive to probe wobble than conventional eddy current testing (its sister technology for nonferromagnetic materials)
The field travels on the outside of the pipe, RFT shows reduced accuracy and sensitivity at conductive and magnetic objects on or near the outside of the pipe, such as attachments or tube support plates.
Two coils generally create two signals from one small defect — a headache for the analyst.

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Radiography Testing (Conventional Methods)
Radiography is the use of ionizing radiations to view objects in a way that can't be seen otherwise. It is not to be confused with the use of ionizing radiation to change or modify objects; radiography's purpose is strictly for viewing. Industrial radiography has grown out of engineering, and is a major element of nondestructive testing (NDT). It is a method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short X-rays and Gamma rays to penetrate various materials. In simple terms, a radiograph is a photographic record produced by the passage of X-rays or gamma rays through an object onto a film or other recording medium (see Figure 1). The developing, fixing and washing of the film after exposure can be performed manually or by automated processing equipment. The development process begins after the film is exposed to the radiation and an invisible change called a latent image develops on the film emulsion.
 These exposed areas become dark when the film is placed in a developing solution. The degree of darkening that occurs during this process depends on the amount of exposure that occurred. The next step is to place the film into a special bath and rinse it to stop the development process. Lastly, the film is put into a fixing bath and then washed to remove the fixer solution. At this point the film is fully developed, the process is complete and the radiograph is ready to be handled and analyzed.As the digital world has evolved, a quicker and much more efficient alternative to the meticulous film development process has also emerged to benefit the radiography NDT community. Computed radiography, which is described in the related article entitled “Computed Radiography in the Pacific Northwest: Benefits, Drawbacks and Requirements”, makes use of an alternative image capturing media and development process.

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Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)
Is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements.  Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack. Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials, but for inspection of ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is preferred for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting and forging defects, cracks, and leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components. DPI is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates into clean and dry surface-breaking discontinuities. Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying, or brushing.
After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw penetrant out of the flaw where a visible indication becomes visible to the inspector. Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type of dye used - fluorescent or nonfluorescent (visible). Penetrants are classified into sensitivity levels. Visible penetrants are typically red in color, and represent the lowest sensitivity. Fluorescent penetrants contain two or more dyes that fluoresce when excited by ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation (also known as black light). Since Fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed in a darkened environment, and the excited dyes emit brilliant yellow-green light that contrasts strongly against the dark background, this material is more sensitive to small defects.
The Objective
The Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Testing method. This advanced technology is generally used for the measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion and erosion of small bore pipes.
The Solution
IRIS uses ultrasonic technology which makes it possible to inspect a wide range of materials. The Internal Rotary Inspection System probe is inserted into a tube which is flooded with water, and the probe is then removed as the data is displayed and recorded. The ultrasonic beam allows detection of metal loss from both the inside and outside of the tube wall.
The IRIS probe produces very accurate and detailed results. The data can be safely used in integrity assessment studies and remaining life-time calculations.
Application Range
This NDT method is generally used for inspection of heat exchanger and steam generator tubes and pipes in the chemical, petrochemical and (nuclear) energy industries.
RIS technology can be used to detect and quantify pitting and damaged areas as well as a general reduction in wall thickness, so that the condition of the entire pipe cluster can be charted.

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Real-time radiography is a well-established method of NDT having applications in automotive, aerospace, pressure vessel, electronic, and munition industries, among others. The use of RTR is increasing due to a reduction in the cost of the equipment and resolution of issues such as the protecting and storing digital images. Since RTR is being used increasingly more, these educational materials were developed by the North Central Collaboration for NDT Education (NCCE) to introduce RTR to NDT technician students.

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The Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Testing method. This advanced technology is generally used for the measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion and erosion of small bore pipes.

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IXAR Private Limited - Service Provider of phased array ultrasonic inspection, ultrasonic testing & stress relieving since 1985 in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

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Nature of Business

Service Provider

Total Number of Employees

1001 to 2000 People

Year of Establishment

1985

Legal Status of Firm

Private Limited Company
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