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Industrial Acids

An acid is a chemical that has a sour taste when dissolved in water. Acidity (or the amount of acid in a given substance) is measured with a number called pH, and acids have a pH less than 7. Chemically, acids are chemicals that contain positive hydrogen ions.

Strong acids can indeed burn away skin and do all kinds of nasty things, and acids are very painful if they get in your eye. But not all acids are strong. Acids are also extremely useful to humans and are involved a lot in manufacturing to make everything from soaps and plastics to explosives and fertilizers. They're even found in a lot of foods.


Some of the most common acids used in industry and science labs are sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, and acetic acid.

Sulfuric acid is an acid containing two hydrogen atoms, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms bonded together. Sulfuric acid is a common waste product produced in the chemical industry when making other chemicals. It's used to refine metals, reduce corrosion of steel, refine oil, and create fertilizers.

Nitric acid is an acid made up of one hydrogen, one nitrogen, and three oxygen atoms bonded together. It's commonly used to make explosives like TNT (including explosives for fireworks), more fertilizers, and dyes.

Hydrochloric acid is the classic laboratory acid made up of one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom, and used in school classrooms all over the world. It's also used to make PVC, gelatin, and other food ingredients, and used to extract metals. And it's the same acid that is found in your stomach!

Nitric Acid
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Physical StateLiquid
UsageIndustrial
State of MatterLiquid
Packaging TypeDrum
Packaging Size250 kg HDPE Drums
Grade StandardTechnical Grade
Form of ChemicalsLiquid

itric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen and water. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68% in water. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as white fuming nitric acid at concentrations above 95%, or red fuming nitric acid at concentrations above 86%.

Nitric acid is the primary reagent used for nitration – the addition of a nitro group, typically to an organic molecule. While some resulting nitro compounds are shock- and thermally-sensitive explosives, a few are stable enough to be used in munitions and demolition, while others are still more stable and used as pigments in inks and dyes. Nitric acid is also commonly used as a strong oxidizing agent.



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Hydrochloric Acid
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Hydrochloric Acid

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Grade StandardIndustrial Grade
SourceNatural
Form of ChemicalsLiquid
Physical StateLiquid

EXCLUSIVE FEATURES
  • Mercury Free

  • Colourless and Corrosive liquid

  • Stable even at high temperature

  • Low Iron content

     

    APPLICATIONS
  • Steel pickling and scale removal

  • Water treatment

  • Ore refining

  • Food processing

  • Manufacture of Chlorine Dioxide

  • Activation of Petroleum wells

  • Catalyst in Organic process

  • Removal of heavy metal from Carbon Black and Activated Carbon

  • Leaching Alumina from Crystalline Zeolities

  • Hydrolyzing agent

  • CS Rubber lined Road Tankers

  • 35 kg Carbuoys for Export Markets

  • 240 kg HM-HDPE Barrels for export

    SPECIFICATIONS
    Sr.CharacteristicSpecifications
    1.Sp. Gravity (at 27oC) 1.145 
    2.Hydrochloric Acid (as HCl)%30.00min
    3.Iron (as Fe+++)ppm1.00max
    4.Free Chlorine & Bromine%0.020max
    Caution : Threshold limit 5 ppm in air as per ACGIH norms

     



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    Sulphuric Acid
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    Sulphuric Acid

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    ApplicationIndustrial Use, Cleaning Agent
    State of MatterLiquid
    Physical StateLiquid
    TypeConcentrated

    Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colorless odorless syrupy liquid that is soluble in water, in a reaction that is highly exothermic.[4]

    Its corrosiveness can be mainly ascribed to its strong acidic nature. It is also hygroscopic, readily absorbing water vapour from the air.[4] Sulfuric acid at even moderate concentrations is very dangerous upon contact with skin.[5][6]

    Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical, and indeed, a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength.[7] It is widely produced with different methods, such as contact process, wet sulfuric acid process, lead chamber process and some other methods.[8]

    The most common use of sulfuric acid (60% of total) is for fertilizer manufacture.[citation needed] It is also a central substance in the chemical industry. Principal uses include fertilizer manufacturing (and other mineral processing), oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis. It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners,[9] as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries and in various cleaning agents.



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    Citric Acid
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    Citric Acid

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    Grade StandardIndustrial Grade
    Packaging Size250 kg HDPE Drums, IBC Tanks

    Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C
    6H
    8O
    7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

    More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.[7]

    A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate. When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate ion is written as C
    6H
    5O3−
    7 or C
    3H
    5O(COO)3−
    3.



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    Acetic Acid Glacial
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    Acetic Acid Glacial

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    Physical StateLiquid
    Packaging Size250 kg Drums
    Form of ChemicalsLiquid

    Acetic acid /əˈsiːtɪk/, systematically named ethanoic acid /ˌɛθəˈnoʊɪk/, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is roughly 3–9% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. In addition to household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate. It is classified as a weak acid since it only partially dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.

    Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). It consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used primarily in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

    The global demand for acetic acid is about 6.5 million metric tons per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from methanol.[7] Vinegar is mostly dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol.



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    Formic Acid
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    Formic Acid

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    Physical StateLiquid
    UsageIndustrial

    Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates.

    Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor[5] at room temperature. It is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, and is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules.[6][7] Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law.[7] Solid formic acid (two polymorphs) consists of an effectively endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules. This relatively complicated compound also forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water (22.4%) and liquid formic acid also tends to supercool.

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    Phosphoric Acid
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    FormLiquid
    State of MatterLiquid
    Physical StateLiquid

    Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid refers to phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho- is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic acid, which, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The conjugate base of phosphoric acid is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H
    2PO
    4, which in turn has a conjugate base of hydrogen phosphate, HPO2−
    4, which has a conjugate base of phosphate, PO3−
    4. Phosphates are essential for life.[7]

    In addition to being a chemical reagent, phosphoric acid has a wide variety of uses, including as a rust converter, food additive, dental and orthopedic etchant, electrolyte, soldering flux, dispersing agent, industrial etchant, fertilizer feedstock, and component of home cleaning products. Phosphoric acids and phosphates are also important in biology.

    The most common source of phosphoric acid is an 85% aqueous solution; such solutions are colourless, odourless, and non-volatile. The 85% solution is a syrupy liquid, but still pourable. Although phosphoric acid does not meet the strict definition of a strong acid, the 85% solution is acidic enough to be corrosive. Because of the high percentage of phosphoric acid in this reagent, at least some of the orthophosphoric acid is condensed into polyphosphoric acids; for the sake of labeling and simplicity, the 85% represents H3PO4 as if it were all in the ortho form. Dilute aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid exist in the ortho form.



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    Hydrofluoric acid
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    Physical StateLiquid
    UsageIndustrial

    Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water. It is a precursor to almost all fluorine compounds, including pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine (Prozac), diverse materials such as PTFE (Teflon), and elemental fluorine itself. It is a colourless solution that is highly corrosive, capable of dissolving many materials, especially oxides. Its ability to dissolve glass has been known since the 17th century, even before Carl Wilhelm Scheele prepared it in large quantities in 1771.[3] Because of its high reactivity toward glass and moderate reactivity toward many metals, hydrofluoric acid is usually stored in plastic containers (although PTFE is slightly permeable to it).[4]

    Hydrogen fluoride gas is an acute poison that may immediately and permanently damage lungs and the corneas of the eyes. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. By interfering with body calcium metabolism, the concentrated acid may also cause systemic toxicity and eventual cardiac arrest and fatality, after contact with as little as 160 cm2 (25 square inches) of skin.



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    Oxalic Acid
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    Oxalic Acid

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    Physical StateLiquid
    UsageIndustrial

    Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4. It is a colorless crystalline solid that forms a colorless solution in water. Its condensed formula is HOOCCOOH, reflecting its classification as the simplest dicarboxylic acid.

    Its acid strength is much greater than that of acetic acid. Oxalic acid is a reducing agent[6] and its conjugate base, known as oxalate (C
    2O2−
    4), is a chelating agent for metal cations. Typically, oxalic acid occurs as the dihydrate with the formula C2H2O4·2H2O.

    It occurs naturally in many foods, but excessive ingestion of oxalic acid or prolonged skin contact can be dangerous.

    Its name comes from the fact that early investigators isolated oxalic acid from wood-sorrel (Oxalis) flowering plants.



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    Boric Acid
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    Boric Acid

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    Physical StatePowder
    UsageIndustrial
    Grade StandardTechnical Grade

    Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite.

    Occurrence

    Boric acid, or sassolite, is found mainly in its free state in some volcanic districts, for example, in the Italian region of Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and the US state of Nevada. In these volcanic settings it issues, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground. It is also found as a constituent of many naturally occurring minerals – borax, boracite, ulexite (boronatrocalcite) and colemanite. Boric acid and its salts are found in seawater. It is also found in plants, including almost all fruits.[1]

    Boric acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) from borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi ("sedative salt of Homberg"). However borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the ancient Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities.[citati

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    Sulfamic Acid
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    Sulfamic acid, also known as amidosulfonic acid, amidosulfuric acid, aminosulfonic acid, and sulfamidic acid, is a molecular compound with the formula H3NSO3. This colorless, water-soluble compound finds many applications. Sulfamic acid melts at 205 °C before decomposing at higher temperatures to H2O, SO3, SO2, and N2.[2]

    Sulfamic acid (H3NSO3) may be considered an intermediate compound between sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and sulfamide (H4N2SO2), effectively replacing an –OH group with an –NH2 group at each step. This pattern can extend no further in either direction without breaking down the –SO2 group. Sulfamates are derivatives of sulfamic acid.

     

    Applications

    Sulfamic acid is mainly a precursor to sweet-tasting compounds. Reaction with cyclohexylamine followed by addition of NaOH gives C6H11NHSO3Na, sodium cyclamate. Related compounds are also sweeteners, see acesulfame potassium.

    Sulfamates have been used in the design of many types of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, nucleoside/nucleotide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), anti-cancer drugs (steroid sulfatase and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors), anti-epileptic drugs, and weight loss drugs.[11]

    Cleaning agent

    Sulfamic acid is used as an acidic cleaning agent, sometimes pure or as a component of proprietary mixtures, typically for metals and ceramics. It is frequently used for removing rust and limescale, replacing the more volatile and irritating hydrochloric acid, which is however cheaper. It is often a component of household descaling agents, for example, Lime-A-Way Thick Gel contains up to 8% sulfamic acid and pH 2–2.2,[12] or detergents used for removal of limescale. When compared to most of the common strong mineral acids, sulfamic acid has desirable water descaling properties, low volatility, and low toxicity. It forms water-soluble salts of calcium and ferric iron.

    Sulfamic acid is preferable to hydrochloric acid in household use, due to its intrinsic safety. If erroneously mixed with hypochlorite based products such as bleach, it does not form chlorine gas, whereas the most common acids would; the reaction (neutralization) with NH3, produces a salt, as depicted in the section above.

    It also finds applications in the industrial cleaning of dairy and brew-house equipment. Although it is considered less corrosive than hydrochloric acid, corrosion inhibitors are often added to the commercial cleansers of which it is a component. It can be used for descaling home coffee and espresso machines and in denture cleaners.

    Other uses
    • Catalyst for esterification process
    • Dye and pigment manufacturing
    • Herbicide
    • Coagulator for urea-formaldehyde resins
    • Ingredient in fire extinguishing media. Sulfamic acid is the main raw material for ammonium sulfamate which is a widely used herbicide and fire retardant material for household product.
    • Pulp and paper industry as a chloride stabilizer
    • Synthesis of nitrous oxide by reaction with nitric acid
    • The deprotonated form (sulfamate) is a common counterion for nickel(II) in electroplating.
    Silver polishingAccording to the label on the consumer product, the liquid silver cleaning product TarnX contains thiourea, a detergent, and sulfamic acid.

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    Methyl Ethyl Ketone, CAS.:78-93-3, C₄H₈NO
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    General Identifiers

    Chemical NameMethyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
    CAS Number78-93-3
    Molecular FormulaC₄H₈NO
    EC Number201-159-0
    IUPAC NameButan-2-one
    SynonymsMEK, 2-Butanone, Ethyl methyl ketone, MEK - deprecated, Methylpropanone, Methylacetone

    General Details

    Purity range90% to 99.99%
    Packaging SizeUpto 200 litres
    Packaging TypeDrum

    Chemical Properties

    Molecular Weight72.107 g/mol
    Density1.075 g/mL at 20°C
    Melting Point−86°C
    Boiling Point79.64°C
    Solubility in water27.5 g/100 mL
    Vapor pressure78 mmHg (20°C)
    Acidity14.7 (pKa)
    Refractive index1.3788
    Viscosity0.43 cP at 20°C
    Flash Point-6°C
    Auto Ignition Temperature515°C
    Freezing Point-86°C
    Surface Tension at 20°C25 mN/m at 20°C
    Specific Heat at 20°C2.19 kJ/kg/°C
    Thermal Conductivity0.15 W/m/°C at 20°C

    Physical Properties

    Physical FormLiquid
    ColorColorless
    OdorMint or acetone-like
    Shelf LifeStable during transport

    Safety Profile

    Hazard StatementH225: Highly Flammable liquid and vapor
    H319: Causes serious eye irritation
    H336: May cause drowsiness or dizziness
    PrecautionLiquid causes eye burn and irritates eyes, nose, and throat. It can cause headache, dizziness, nausea, weakness, and loss of consciousness.
    Use dilution methods. Workshops must be properly ventilated. Storage areas must be properly checked. Disposal of solvent includes soacking it in rags covered by containers. Use of Face Mask, Headcover, full body PPE is recommended. The control of fire hazards is also important, since many of the solvents are highly flammable.


    Application

    • Used in cleaning fluids.
    • Used as a raw material to make other chemicals.
    • Used as a solvent

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