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M.A.N. Industries

Andheri East, Mumbai, Maharashtra

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Industrial Chemicals

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) into more than 70,000 different products.

The plastics industry contains some overlap, as most chemical companies produce plastic as well as other chemicals.

"Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the industry’s output worldwide".[11] These materials are often converted to fluoropolymer tubing products and used by the industry to transport highly corrosive materials.[12] Chemicals are used in a lot of different consumer goods, but they are also used in a lot of different other sectors; including agriculture manufacturing, construction, and service industries.[11] Major industrial customers include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Chemicals are nearly a $3 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and U.S. chemical companies are the world's largest producers.[citation needed]

Sales of the chemical business can be divided into a few broad categories, including basic chemicals (about 35 to 37 percent of the dollar output), life sciences (30 percent), specialty chemicals (20 to 25 percent) and consumer products (about 10 percent).[13]

Basic chemicals & Commodity Chemicals to Polymers and Speciality Chemicals.

Sodium Molybdate
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Sodium Molybdate

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Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 Kilogram

Grade StandardAnalytical Grade, Reagent Grade
State of Matter Solid
Packaging TypeBag
Color White Crystal
Physical StatePowder
Packaging Size25,50 kg bags
UsageLaboratory, Industrial
Form of Chemicals Solid

Mainly used as an alloying element in cast iron, steel, and super alloys and in the electronics industries, these Molybdenum Compounds are crystalline solid that melts around 800 degrees Celsius. These compounds are extensively used in the electronics industries and in chemical vapour deposition. Main application as an oxidation catalyst and as a untreated material for the making of molybdenum metal, these compounds finds extensive used in lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, paints and surface coatings, smoke suppressors (or suppressants), pigments, ceramics, nanomaterials and agricultural chemicals.

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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 25 kg pp bags 50 kg pp bags

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Sodium Sulphate
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Sodium Sulphate

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Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 Kilogram

Packaging Typepp bags
Colorpure white
Physical StatePowder
Grade StandardReagent Grade, Technical Grade
UsageIndustrial
Packaging Size50 kg pp bags,1000 kg jumbo bags

We are the reliable trader, exporter and supplier of Sodium Sulphite, a chemical that is obtained by treating sulfur dioxide with a sodium carbonate solution. 

Model Overview:
SynonymDi-sodium Sulfate
Molecular FormulaNa2SO4
Molecular Weight322.19
DescriptionWhite Crystalline Powder
SolubilityVery Soluble in Water
Ph of 5% Solution5.2-9.2
Insoluble MatterMax. 0.01%
ChlorideMax. 0.0005%
PhosphateMax. 0.0005%
Heavy MetalsMax. 0.0003%
IronMax. 0.0005%
CalciumMax. 0.005%
MagnesiumMax. 0.003%
PotassiumMax. 0.005%
AssayMin. 99.0%


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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 25 kg pp bags, 50 kg pp bags 500 kg jumbo bags 1000 kg jumbo bags

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Titanium Dioxide
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Titanium Dioxide

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Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 Kilogram

Physical StatePowder
Packaging TypeBag
State of Matter Solid
ApplicationPigment
Form of Chemicals Solid
Grade Standard Analytical Grade, Technical Grade
UsageIndustrial
FormRutile, Anatase

We offer Titanium Dioxide is extensively used for colouring and printing paste in the chemical fibre. These dioxides include anatase titanium dioxide and rutile titanium dioxide. Our product range also comprises Water Treatment Chemicals, ETP Chemicals and Swimming Pool Chemicals. These are checked on various parameters to deliver it free from impurities.



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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 25/50 kg pp bags

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Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 Kg

Physical StatePowder, solid
UsageIndustrial, Laboratory
State of MatterLiquid , Solid
Grade StandardReagent Grade, Analytical Grade, Technical Grade
Packaging Size250 kg drums,500 kg drums
Form of Chemicals Solid, Liquid
Packaging TypeDrum
Color Transparent
Concentration (%)80
Applicationbiocide,disinfectant,surfactant

  • BKC is used in pharmaceuticals such as leave-on skin antiseptics
  • BKC is used as antiseptic in Bactine to safely treat childhood scrapes and cuts
  • BKC is used in advanced, next generation hand sanitizers
  • BKC is used in hygienic towelettes and wet wipes
  • BKC is used in cosmetics such as eye and nasal drops, as a preservative
  • BKC is used in cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant
  • BKC is used in high-level surgical instrument sterilizing and disinfection solutions
  • BKC is used in air and surface sprayable disinfectants


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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 200 kgs, 230 kgs and 250 kgs HDPE Drum / IBC (1000 liters)

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Minimum Order Quantity: 1000 Kg

Physical Statesolid, Liquid
UsageIndustrial
Grade StandardBio-Tech Grade, Technical Grade, Reagent Grade, Analytical Grade
State of MatterSolid, Liquid
Packaging Size250 kg drums,500 kg drums
Form of ChemicalsLiquid, Solid
Packaging TypeDrum
Active Matter (%)50%
ColorTransparent
Concentration (%)50
Applicationbiocide,disinfectant,surfactant

  • BKC is used in pharmaceuticals such as leave-on skin antiseptics
  • BKC is used as antiseptic in Bactine to safely treat childhood scrapes and cuts
  • BKC is used in advanced, next generation hand sanitizers
  • BKC is used in hygienic towelettes and wet wipes
  • BKC is used in cosmetics such as eye and nasal drops, as a preservative
  • BKC is used in cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant
  • BKC is used in high-level surgical instrument sterilizing and disinfection solutions
  • BKC is used in air and surface sprayable disinfectants


Additional Information:

  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 200 kgs, 230 kgs and 250 kgs HDPE Drum / IBC (1000 liters)

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Sodium Chlorate
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Sodium Chlorate

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Uses

The main commercial use for sodium chlorate is for making chlorine dioxide (ClO2). The largest application of ClO2, which accounts for about 95% of the use of chlorate, is in bleaching of pulp. All perchlorate compounds are produced industrially by the oxidation of solutions of sodium chlorate by electrolysis.[6]

Herbicides

Sodium chlorate is used as a non-selective herbicide. It is considered phytotoxic to all green plant parts. It can also kill through root absorption.

Sodium chlorate may be used to control a variety of plants including morning glory, canada thistle, johnson grass, bamboo, Ragwort, and St John's wort. The herbicide is mainly used on non-crop land for spot treatment and for total vegetation control on areas including roadsides, fenceways, and ditches. Sodium chlorate is also used as a defoliant and desiccant for:

  • Cotton
  • Safflower
  • Corn
  • Flax
  • Peppers
  • Soybeans
  • Grain sorghum
  • Southern peas
  • Dry beans
  • Rice
  • Sunflowers

If used in combination with atrazine, it increases the persistence of the effect. If used in combination with 2,4-D, performance is improved. Sodium chlorate has a soil sterilant effect. Mixing with other herbicides in aqueous solution is possible to some extent, so long as they are not susceptible to oxidation.

Chemical oxygen generationChemical oxygen generators, such as those in commercial aircraft, provide emergency oxygen to passengers to protect them from drops in cabin pressure. Oxygen is generated by high-temperature decomposition of sodium chlorate. Heat is generated by oxidation of a small amount of iron powder mixed with the sodium chlorate, and the reaction consumes less oxygen than is produced. Barium peroxide (BaO2) is used to absorb the chlorine which is a minor product in the decomposition.[7] An ignitor charge is activated by pulling on the emergency mask. Similarly, the Solidox welding system used pellets of sodium chlorate mixed with combustible fibers to generate oxygen.

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Soda Ash Light
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Soda Ash Light

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Form1000 kg jumbo bags
Packaging TypeBag
TypesLight
Physical StatePowder
UsageIndustrial
Packaging Size50 Kg
Grade StandardTechnical Grade

Soda Ash Light

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Soda Ash Dense
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Soda Ash Dense

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Manufacturers of quality flat glass, glass containers and detergents rely on the purity of ANSAC dense soda ash in making the world-class products their customers demand.

dense soda ash is a premium quality product that combines a consistently high sodium carbonate content with very low impurity levels of chlorides and iron. dense soda ash is guaranteed to be 99.2% pure, but has a typical purity level of 99.8%, resulting in more product when compared to a lower assay soda ash.

Key advantages of  dense soda ash include:

Particle Size Uniformity dense soda ash is closely and consistently matched to sand grain size resulting in a homogenous sand/soda ash mix in the glass furnace. This provides predictable, controllable viscosity resulting in a final glass product that is free from distortion.Fewer Issues with Soda Ash FinesBecause 97% of  Dense Soda Ash particles are 75 microns or larger, users will enjoy a more homogenous sand/soda ash mix. This actually saves money since fewer soda ash fines will be blown off and lost during production. In addition, furnace life may be extended since liquid soda ash particles, which dissolve refractories, are minimized in the gas stream. Finally, the narrow distribution of particle sizes, combined with low fines, results in less dusting and easier handling of the product.Lower Chloride and Iron LevelsChloride impurities in soda ash are harmful to the environment and to the life span of the molds and furnaces involved in glass manufacturing. The low chloride values of dense soda ash result in less air pollution. Additionally, by producing lower exhaust temperatures during glass manufacture, furnace and mold life is extended.dense soda ash also has relatively low levels of iron. This enables glass manufacturers to utilize cheaper, high iron sands while continuing to produce a glass that meets their standards for clarity.

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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week
  • Packaging Details: 50 kg pp bags/1000 kg jumbo bags

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Sodium Bicarbonate
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Sodium Bicarbonate

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Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

Uses

Sodium bicarbonate has a wide variety of uses.

CookingMain article: Leavening agent

In cooking, sodium bicarbonate, referred to as baking soda, is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. It reacts with acidic components in batters, releasing carbon dioxide, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. Acidic compounds that induce this reaction include phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa and vinegar. Baking soda may be used together with sourdough, which is acidic, making a lighter product with a less acid taste.[9]

Heat can also by itself cause sodium bicarbonate to act as a raising agent in baking because of thermal decomposition, releasing carbon dioxide. When used this way on its own, without the presence of an acidic component (whether in the batter or by the use of a baking powder containing acid), only half the available CO2 is released. Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, "soapy" taste and a yellow color. To avoid an over-acidic taste from added acid, non-acid ingredients such as whole milk or Dutch-processed cocoa are often added to baked foods.[10]

Carbon dioxide production from exposure to heat starts at temperatures above 80 °C (180 °F).[11]

2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.

Sodium bicarbonate was sometimes used in cooking green vegetables, as it gives them a bright green colour—which has been described as artificial-looking—due to its reacting with chlorophyll to produce chlorophyllin.[12] However, this tends to affect taste, texture and nutritional content, and is no longer common.[13] Baking soda is still used, though, in the traditional British mushy peas recipe for soaking the peas. It is also used in Asian and Latin American cuisine to tenderize meats. Baking soda may react with acids in food, including vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid). It is also used in breading, such as for fried foods, to enhance crispness and allow passages for steam to escape, so the breading is not blown off during cooking.

Baking powder

Baking powder, also sold for cooking, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients which are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium.[14][15][16]

Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate or cream of tartar.[17] Baking soda is alkaline; the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate.

Pest control

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to kill cockroaches. Once consumed, it causes internal organs of cockroaches to burst due to gas collection.[18]




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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week

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Caustic Soda Flakes
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Caustic Soda Flakes

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We are maufacturer of caustic soda lye and caustic soda flakes. Caustic Soda is a versatile basic chemical with a wide range of industrial applications. It is highly soluble is water and is practically insoluble in most organic solvents except alcohols. It is availablei n the from of lye (solutioninwater), as solid and as flakes.

Applications
  • Digestion of wood and bagasse for manufacture of pulp and paper.
  • Digestion of wood for manufacture of viscose staple fibre, viscose filament yarn and rayon tyre cord.
  • Manufacture of soaps and detergents.
  • Digestion of aluminium ore to make alumina as an intermediate in the production of aluminium.
  • Dleaching & processing of cotton textiles.
  • Regeneration of ion-exchangere sins in water treatment plants.



Quality Rayon Grade Caustic Soda Lye is manufactured in technical collaboration with UHDE GmbH of Germany, world leaders in chlor-alkali technology. Caustic Soda Flakes are produced using the latest technology and plant of Bertrams, Switzerland. Rigid quality control on inputs, process and outputs lead to high purity and consistent quality that permit standardization of its use in industry.

Properties
1.Specific gravity2.13
2.OdourOdourless
3.Melting point
(calcination)
320°C
4.Boiling point1390°C
5.HygroscopicityHygroscopic and deliquescent
6.Solubility in waterHighly soluble
7.Solubility in organic solventsSolubles in ethanol, methanol, glycerol etc but insoluble in ether and benzene

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Caustic Soda Lye
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Caustic Soda Lye

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We are maufacturer of caustic soda lye and caustic soda flakes. Caustic Soda is a versatile basic chemical with a wide range of industrial applications. It is highly soluble is water and is practically insoluble in most organic solvents except alcohols. It is availablei n the from of lye (solutioninwater), as solid and as flakes.

Applications
  • Digestion of wood and bagasse for manufacture of pulp and paper.
  • Digestion of wood for manufacture of viscose staple fibre, viscose filament yarn and rayon tyre cord.
  • Manufacture of soaps and detergents.
  • Digestion of aluminium ore to make alumina as an intermediate in the production of aluminium.
  • Dleaching & processing of cotton textiles.
  • Regeneration of ion-exchangere sins in water treatment plants.
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Quality Rayon Grade Caustic Soda Lye is manufactured in technical collaboration with UHDE GmbH of Germany, world leaders in chlor-alkali technology. Caustic Soda Flakes are produced using the latest technology and plant of Bertrams, Switzerland. Rigid quality control on inputs, process and outputs lead to high purity and consistent quality that permit standardization of its use in industry.

Properties
1.Specific gravity2.13
2.OdourOdourless
3.Melting point
(calcination)
320°C
4.Boiling point1390°C
5.HygroscopicityHygroscopic and deliquescent
6.Solubility in waterHighly soluble
7.Solubility in organic solventsSolubles in ethanol, methanol, glycerol etc but insoluble in ether and benzene


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  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
  • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
  • Delivery Time: 1 week

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Caustic Potash Flakes
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Caustic Potash Flakes

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Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its corrosive nature and its reactivity toward acids. An estimated 700,000 to 800,000 tonnes were produced in 2005. About 100 times more NaOH than KOH is produced annually.[10] KOH is noteworthy as the precursor to most soft and liquid soaps, as well as numerous potassium-containing chemicals.

Uses

KOH and NaOH can be used interchangeably for a number of applications, although in industry, NaOH is preferred because of its lower cost.

Precursor to other potassium compounds

Many potassium salts are prepared by neutralization reactions involving KOH. The potassium salts of carbonate, cyanide, permanganate, phosphate, and various silicates are prepared by treating either the oxides or the acids with KOH.[10] The high solubility of potassium phosphate is desirable in fertilizers.

Manufacture of biodiesel

Although more expensive than using sodium hydroxide, KOH works well in the manufacture of biodiesel by transesterification of the triglycerides in vegetable oil. Glycerin from potassium hydroxide-processed biodiesel is useful as an inexpensive food supplement for livestock, once the toxic methanol is removed.[16]

Manufacture of soft soaps

The saponification of fats with KOH is used to prepare the corresponding "potassium soaps", which are softer than the more common sodium hydroxide-derived soaps. Because of their softness and greater solubility, potassium soaps require less water to liquefy, and can thus contain more cleaning agent than liquefied sodium soaps.[17]

As an electrolyte

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Caustic Potash Lye
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Caustic Potash Lye

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State of MatterLiquid

EXCLUSIVE FEATURES
  • Mercury Free

       APPLICATIONS
  • Potassium Carbonate

  • Dye Stuff industry

  • Rubber Chemicals

  • Potassium Permanganate

  • Acid Neutralization

  • Other Potassium based chemicals

  • Pharmaceutical industry

       SPECIFICATIONS
    Sr.CharacteristicSpecifications
    1.Potassium Hydroxide (as KOH)%47.00min
    2.Potassium Carbonate (as K2CO3)%00.50max
    3.Chloride (as KCl)ppm150.00max
    4.Iron (as Fe+++)ppm20.00max
    Caution : Harmful to Animals & Plant tissues, Corrosive


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    Citric Acid Monohydrate
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    Citric Acid Monohydrate

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    Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C
    6H
    8O
    7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

    More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.[7]

    A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate.

    ApplicationsFood and drink Powdered citric acid being used to prepare lemon pepper seasoning

    Because it is one of the stronger edible acids, the dominant use of citric acid is as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages, especially soft drinks and candies.[10] Within the European Union it is denoted by E number E330. Citrate salts of various metals are used to deliver those minerals in a biologically available form in many dietary supplements. Citric acid has 247 kcal per 100 g.[24] The buffering properties of citrates are used to control pH in household cleaners and pharmaceuticals. In the United States the purity requirements for citric acid as a food additive are defined by the Food Chemicals Codex, which is published by the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP).

    Citric acid can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or in recipes in place of fresh lemon juice. Citric acid is used with sodium bicarbonate in a wide range of effervescent formulae, both for ingestion (e.g., powders and tablets) and for personal care (e.g., , bath bombs, and cleaning of grease). Citric acid sold in a dry powdered form is commonly sold in markets and groceries as "sour salt", due to its physical resemblance to table salt. It has use in culinary applications, as an alternative to vinegar or lemon juice, where a pure acid is needed.

    Citric acid can be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye.

    Cleaning and chelating agent

    Citric acid is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals by making them soluble. It is used to remove and discourage the buildup of limescale from boilers and evaporators.[10] It can be used to treat water, which makes it useful in improving the effectiveness of soaps and laundry detergents. By chelating the metals in hard water, it lets these cleaners produce foam and work better without need for water softening. Citric acid is the active ingredient in some bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions. A solution with a six percent concentration of citric acid will remove hard water stains from glass without scrubbing. In industry, it is used to dissolve rust from steel. Citric acid can be used in shampoo to wash out wax and coloring from the hair.



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    Citric Acid Anhydrous
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    Citric Acid Anhydrous

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    Citric acid is a natural occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.

    Citric acid anhydrous occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. It is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether.

    Citric acid anhydrous is non-toxic and has a low reactivity. It is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. Citric acid anhydrous is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.



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    • Port of Dispatch: Nhava Sheva
    • Production Capacity: 20000 tons
    • Delivery Time: 1 week
    • Packaging Details: 25 kg pp bags/500 kg jumbo bags/1000 kg Jumbo Bags

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    Sodium Metabisulfite
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    Sodium Metabisulfite

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    Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (IUPAC spelling; Br. E. sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5. The substance is sometimes referred to as disodium metabisulfite. It is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent.

      UsesFood additive

      It is used as a preservative and antioxidant in food and is also known as E223.[4]

      It may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to sulfites, including respiratory reactions in asthmatics, anaphylaxis, and other allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.[5][6]

      Sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite are the primary ingredients in Campden tablets, used for wine and beer making.[7]

      The acceptable daily intake is up to 0.7 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.[8] Sodium metabisulfite oxidizes in the liver to sulfate which is excreted in the urine.[8]

      Sanitization and cleaning agent

      It is commonly used in homebrewing and winemaking to sanitize equipment. It is used as a cleaning agent for potable water reverse osmosis membranes in desalination systems. It is also used to remove chloramine from drinking water after treatment.

      Other uses
    • Added to local anaesthetic (lidocaine etc.) solutions to prevent oxidation of vasoconstrictor adrenaline and thus improve the shelf life of the solution[citation needed]
    • It is used in photography.[9]
    • Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps. Some brands contain 98% sodium metabisulfite, and cause degradation of lignin in the stumps, facilitating removal.[10]
    • It is also used as an excipient in some tablets, such as paracetamol. Approximately 0.5 mg is used in epinephrine autoinjectors such as the EpiPen.


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    Sodium Bisulfite
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    Sodium Bisulfite

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    Sodium bisulfite (or sodium bisulphite) (sodium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. Sodium bisulfite is a food additive with E number E222. This salt of bisulfite can be prepared by bubbling sulfur dioxide in a solution of sodium carbonate in water. Sodium bisulfite in contact with chlorine bleach (aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite) will generate heat and form sodium bisulfate and sodium chloride.

    Uses in food and FDA ban

    While the related compound, sodium metabisulfite, is used in almost all commercial wines to prevent oxidation and preserve flavor, sodium bisulfite is sold by some home winemaking suppliers for the same purpose.[11] In fruit canning, sodium bisulfite is used to prevent browning (caused by oxidation) and to kill microbes.

    In the case of wine making, sodium bisulfite releases sulfur dioxide gas when added to water or products containing water. The sulfur dioxide kills yeasts, fungi, and bacteria in the grape juice before fermentation. When the sulfur dioxide levels have subsided (about 24 hours), fresh yeast is added for fermentation.

    It is later added to bottled wine to prevent the formation of vinegar if bacteria are present, and to protect the color, aroma and flavor of the wine from oxidation, which causes browning and other chemical changes. The sulfur dioxide quickly reacts with oxidation by-products and prevents them from causing further deterioration.

    Sodium bisulfite is also added to leafy green vegetables in salad bars and elsewhere, to preserve apparent freshness, under names like LeafGreen. The concentration is sometimes high enough to cause severe allergic reactions.[12]

    On July 8, 1986, sodium bisulfite was banned from use by the FDA on fresh fruits and vegetables in the United States following the deaths of 13 people and many illnesses, mainly among asthmatics.[13]



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    Hydrogen Peroxide
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    Hydrogen Peroxide

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    Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H
    2O
    2. In its pure form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen–oxygen single bond). It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent and antiseptic. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry.[5] Its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond.

    Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and slowly decomposes in the presence of base or a catalyst. Because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is typically stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases

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    Sodium Sulphide
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    Packaging TypePP Bags
    Packaging Size25 kg,50 kg, 500 kg

    Sodium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula Na2S, or more commonly its hydrate Na2S·9H2O. Both are colorless water-soluble salts that give strongly alkaline solutions. When exposed to moist air, Na2S and its hydrates emit hydrogen sulfide, which smells like rotten eggs. Some commercial samples are specified as Na2xH2O, where a weight percentage of Na2S is specified. Commonly available grades have around 60% Na2S by weight, which means that x is around 3. Such technical grades of sodium sulfide have a yellow appearance owing to the presence of polysulfides. These grades of sodium sulfide are marketed as 'sodium sulfide flakes'. Although the solid is yellow, solutions of it are colorless.

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    Ferric Chloride
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    Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state. The colour of iron(III) chloride crystals depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is deliquescent, forming hydrated hydrogen chloride mists in moist air. It is rarely observed in its natural form, the mineral molysite, known mainly from some fumaroles.

    When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride undergoes hydrolysis and gives off heat in an exothermic reaction. The resulting brown, acidic, and corrosive solution is used as a flocculant in sewage treatment and drinking water production, and as an etchant for copper-based metals in printed circuit boards. Anhydrous iron(III) chloride is a fairly strong Lewis acid, and it is used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

     

    • Used in anhydrous form as a drying reagent in certain reactions.
    • Used to detect the presence of phenol compounds in organic synthesis; e.g., examining purity of synthesised Aspirin.
    • Used in water and wastewater treatment to precipitate phosphate as iron(III) phosphate.
    • Used by American coin collectors to identify the dates of Buffalo nickels that are so badly worn that the date is no longer visible.
    • Used by bladesmiths and artisans in pattern welding to etch the metal, giving it a contrasting effect, to view metal layering or imperfections.
    • Used to etch the widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites.
    • Necessary for the etching of photogravure plates for printing photographic and fine art images in intaglio and for etching rotogravure cylinders used in the printing industry.
    • Used to make printed circuit boards (PCBs).
    • Used in veterinary practice to treat overcropping of an animal's claws, particularly when the overcropping results in bleeding.
    • Reacts with cyclopentadienylmagnesium bromide in one preparation of ferrocene, a metal-sandwich complex.[24]
    • Sometimes used in a technique of Raku ware firing, the iron coloring a pottery piece shades of pink, brown, and orange.
    • Used to test the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and other alloys.
    • Used in conjunction with NaI in acetonitrile to mildly reduce organic azides to primary amines.[25]
    • Used in an animal thrombosis model.[26]
    • Used in energy storage systems
    • Historically it was used to make direct positive blueprints.[27][28]
    • A component of modified Carnoy's solution used for surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT)


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    Calcium Chloride
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    Calcium Chloride

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    Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a colorless crystalline solid at room temperature, highly soluble in water.

    Calcium chloride is commonly encountered as a hydrated solid with generic formula CaCl2(H2O)x, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. These compounds are mainly used for de-icing and dust control. Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as a desiccant.

    De-icing and freezing point depression Bulk CaCl2 for de-icing in Japan.

    By depressing the freezing point of water, calcium chloride is used to prevent ice formation and is used to de-ice. This application consumes the greatest amount of calcium chloride. Calcium chloride is relatively harmless to plants and soil. As a de-icing agent, it is much more effective at lower temperatures than sodium chloride. When distributed for this use, it usually takes the form of small, white spheres a few millimeters in diameter, called prills. Solutions of calcium chloride can prevent freezing at temperature as low as −52 °C (−62 °F), making it ideal for filling agricultural implement tires as a liquid ballast, aiding traction in cold climates.[10]

    It is also used in domestic and industrial chemical air dehumidifiers.[11]

    Road surfacing Calcium chloride was sprayed on this road to prevent weathering, giving it a wet appearance even in dry weather.

    The second largest application of calcium chloride exploits hygroscopic properties and the tackiness of its hydrates. A concentrated solution keeps a liquid layer on the surface of dirt roads, which suppresses formation of dust. It keeps the finer dust particles on the road, providing a cushioning layer. If these are allowed to blow away, the large aggregate begins to shift around and the road breaks down. Using calcium chloride reduces the need for grading by as much as 50% and the need for fill-in materials as much as 80%.[12]

    Water treatment

    Calcium chloride is used to increase the water hardness in swimming pools. This process reduces the erosion of the concrete in the pool. By Le Chatelier's principle and the common ion effect, increasing the concentration of calcium in the water will reduce the dissolution of calcium compounds essential to the structure of concrete.[citation needed]




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    Sodium Dithionite
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    Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is a white crystalline powder with a weak sulfurous odor. Although it is stable in the absence of air, it decomposes in hot water and in acid solutions.
    pplicationsIndustry

    This compound is a water-soluble salt, and can be used as a reducing agent in aqueous solutions. It is used as such in some industrial dyeing processes, primarily those involving sulfur dyes and vat dyes, where an otherwise water-insoluble dye can be reduced into a water-soluble alkali metal salt (e.g. indigo dye).[7] The reduction properties of sodium dithionite also eliminate excess dye, residual oxide, and unintended pigments, thereby improving overall colour quality.

    Sodium dithionite can also be used for water treatment, gas purification, cleaning, and stripping. It can also be used in industrial processes as a sulfonating agent or a sodium ion source. In addition to the textile industry, this compound is used in industries concerned with leather, foods, polymers, photography, and many others. Its wide use is attributable to its low toxicity LD50 at 5 g/kg, and hence its wide range of applications. It is also used as decolourising agent in organic reactions.

    Biological sciences

    Sodium dithionite is often used in physiology experiments as a means of lowering solutions' redox potential (Eo' -0.66 V vs SHE at pH 7).[8] Potassium ferricyanide is usually used as an oxidizing chemical in such experiments (Eo' ~ .436 V at pH 7). In addition, sodium dithionite is often used in soil chemistry experiments to determine the amount of iron that is not incorporated in primary silicate minerals. Hence, iron extracted by sodium dithionite is also referred to as "free iron." The strong affinity of the dithionite ion for bi- and trivalent metal cations (M2+, M3+) allows it to enhance the solubility of iron, and therefore dithionite is a useful chelating agent.

    Geosciences

    Sodium dithionite has been used in chemical enhanced oil recovery[citation needed] to stabilize polyacrylamide polymers against radical degradation in the presence of iron. It has also been used in environmental applications to propagate a low Eh front in the subsurface in order to reduce components such as chromium.

    Photography

    It can be used as a developer, but it is a very uncommon choice. It is prone to reduce film speed and, if improperly used, quickly fogs the image.

    Laboratory

    Aqueous solutions of sodium dithionite were once used to produce "Fieser's solution' for the removal of oxygen from a gas stream.[9] Pyrithione can be prepared in a two-step synthesis from 2-bromopyridine by oxidation to the N-oxide with a suitable peracid followed by substitution using sodium dithionite to introduce the thiol functional group.[10]



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    Calcium hydroxide/Hydrated Lime
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    Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation. Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.

    Uses

    One significant application of calcium hydroxide is as a flocculant, in water and sewage treatment. It forms a fluffy charged solid that aids in the removal of smaller particles from water, resulting in a clearer product. This application is enabled by the low cost and low toxicity of calcium hydroxide. It is also used in fresh water treatment for raising the pH of the water so that pipes will not corrode where the base water is acidic, because it is self-regulating and does not raise the pH too much.

    It is also used in the preparation of ammonia gas (NH3), using the following reaction:

    Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl → 2NH3 + CaCl2 + 2H2O

    Another large application is in the paper industry, where it is an intermediate in the reaction in the production of sodium hydroxide. This conversion is part of the causticizing step in the Kraft process for making pulp.[8] In the causticizing operation burned lime is added to green liquor which is a solution primarily of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate produced by dissolving smelt, which is the molten form of these chemicals from the recovery furnace.

    Food industry

    Because of its low toxicity and the mildness of its basic properties, slaked lime is widely used in the food industry to:

    • clarify raw juice from sugarcane or sugar beets in the sugar industry, (see carbonatation)
    • process water for alcoholic beverages and soft drinks
    • pickle cucumbers and other foods
    • make Chinese century eggs
    • in maize preparation: removes the cellulose hull of maize kernals (see nixtamalization)
    • clear a brine of carbonates of calcium and magnesium in the manufacture of salt for food and pharmaceutical uses
    • fortify (Ca supplement) fruit drinks, such as orange juice, and infant formula
    • aid digestion (called Choona, used in India in paan, a mixture of areca nuts, calcium hydroxide and a variety of seeds wrapped in betel leaves)
    • substitute for baking soda in making papadam.
    Native American uses Dry untreated maize (left), and treated maize (right) after boiling in water with calcium hydroxide (15 ml, or 1 Tbsp, lime for 500 g of corn) for 15 minutes.

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    Aluminium Hydroxide
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    Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric in nature, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric. These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite.

    Uses

    One of the major uses of aluminium hydroxide is as a feedstock for the manufacture of other aluminium compounds: speciality calcined aluminas, aluminium sulfate, polyaluminium chloride, aluminium chloride, zeolites, sodium aluminate, activated alumina, and aluminium nitrate.[7]

    Freshly precipitated aluminium hydroxide forms gels, which are the basis for the application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification. This gel crystallizes with time. Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. Aluminium hydroxide powder which has been heated to an elevated temperature under carefully controlled conditions is known as activated alumina and is used as a desiccant, as an adsorbent in gas purification, as a Claus catalyst support for water purification, and as an adsorbent for the catalyst during the manufacture of polyethylene by the Sclairtech process.[citation needed]

    Fire retardant

    Aluminium hydroxide also finds use as a fire retardant filler for polymer applications in a similar way to magnesium hydroxide and mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite.[11][12][13][14][15] It decomposes at about 180 °C (356 °F), absorbing a considerable amount of heat in the process and giving off water vapour. In addition to behaving as a fire retardant, it is very effective as a smoke suppressant in a wide range of polymers, most especially in polyesters, acrylics, ethylene vinyl acetate, epoxies, PVC and rubber.[16]

    Pharmaceutical

    Under the generic name "algeldrate", aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid in humans and animals (mainly cats and dogs). It is preferred over other alternatives such as sodium bicarbonate because Al(OH)3, being insoluble, does not increase the pH of stomach above 7 and hence, does not trigger secretion of excess acid by the stomach. Brand names include Alu-Cap, Aludrox, Gaviscon or Pepsamar. It reacts with excess acid in the stomach, reducing the acidity of the stomach content,[17][18] which may relieve the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn or dyspepsia. Such products can cause constipation, because the aluminium ions inhibit the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, slowing peristalsis and lengthening the time needed for stool to pass through the colon.[19] Some such products (such as Maalox) are formulated to minimize such effects through the inclusion of equal concentrations of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate, which have counterbalancing laxative effects.[20]

    This compound is also used to control hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate, or phosphorus, levels in the blood) in people and animals suffering from kidney failure. Normally, the kidneys filter excess phosphate out from the blood, but kidney failure can cause phosphate to accumulate. The aluminium salt, when ingested, binds to phosphate in the intestines and reduce the amount of phosphorus that can be absorbed.[21][22]




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    Zinc Chloride
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    Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water.[citation needed] ZnCl2 itself is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Samples should therefore be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleit.

    ApplicationsAs a metallurgical flux

    Zinc chloride has the ability to react with metal oxides (MO) to give derivatives of the formula MZnOCl2.[33][additional citation(s) needed] This reaction is relevant to the utility of ZnCl2 solution as a flux for soldering — it dissolves oxide coatings, exposing the clean metal surface.[33] Fluxes with ZnCl2 as an active ingredient are sometimes called "tinner's fluid". Typically this flux was prepared by dissolving zinc foil in dilute hydrochloric acid until the liquid ceased to evolve hydrogen; for this reason, such flux was once known as "killed spirits". Because of its corrosive nature, this flux is not suitable for situations where any residue cannot be cleaned away, such as electronic work. This property also leads to its use in the manufacture of magnesia cements for dental fillings and certain mouthwashes as an active ingredient.

    In organic synthesisAn early use of zinc chloride (Silzic) was in building carbon skeletons by condensation of methanol molecules. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are the major products, with reaction conditions influencing the distribution of products, though some aromatic compounds were formed.[34] In 1880, it was found that molten zinc chloride catalyses an aromatization reaction generating hexamethylbenzene.

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    Calcium Carbonate
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    Calcium Carbonate

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    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone, which contains both of those minerals) and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggs. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale. It is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.
    Industrial applications

    The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material or limestone aggregate for road building or as an ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the preparation of builder's lime by burning in a kiln. However, because of weathering mainly caused by acid rain,[18] calcium carbonate (in limestone form) is no longer used for building purposes on its own, but only as a raw/primary substance for building materials.




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    Magnesium Carbonate
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    Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 (archaic name magnesia alba), is an inorganic salt that is a white solid. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals.
    Uses

    The primary use of magnesium carbonate is the production of magnesium oxide by calcining. Magnesite and dolomite minerals are used to produce refractory bricks.[5] MgCO3 is also used in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Other applications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a drying agent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and color retention in foods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing. Magnesium carbonate can do this because it doesn't dissolve in water, only acid, where it will effervesce (bubble).[11]

    Because of its low solubility in water and hygroscopic properties, MgCO3 was first added to salt in 1911 to make it flow more freely. The Morton Salt company adopted the slogan "When it rains it pours" with reference to the fact that its MgCO3-containing salt would not stick together in humid weather.[12] Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as 'chalk', is also used as a drying agent on athletes' palms in rock climbing, gymnastics and weight lifting.

    As a food additive magnesium carbonate is known as E504, for which the only known side effect is that it may work as a laxative in high concentrations.[13]

    Magnesium carbonate is also used in taxidermy for whitening skulls. It can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide to create a paste, which is then spread on the skull to give it a white finish.

    As a matte white coating for projection screens.[14]



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    Talc
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    Talc

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    alc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form, it is (in ratio with or without corn starch), one of the most widely used substances known as baby powder. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It has a perfect basal cleavage, and the folia are not elastic, although slightly flexible.

    Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 1 as the hardness of talc. As such, talc can easily be scratched by a fingernail. Talc has a specific gravity of 2.5–2.8, a clear or dusty luster, and is translucent to opaque. Talc is not soluble in water, but is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids.[citation needed] Its colour ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Its streak is white.

    Soapstone is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc.

     

    Uses Talcum powder The structure of talc is composed of Si2O5 sheets with magnesium sandwiched between sheets in octahedral sites.

    Talc is used in many industries, including paper making, plastic, paint and coatings, rubber, food, electric cable, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and ceramics. A coarse grayish-green high-talc rock is soapstone or steatite, used for stoves, sinks, electrical switchboards, crayons, soap, etc. It is often used for surfaces of laboratory table tops and electrical switchboards because of its resistance to heat, electricity and acids. Talc finds use as a cosmetic (talcum powder), as a lubricant, and as a filler in paper manufacture. It is used to coat the insides of inner tubes and rubber gloves during manufacture to keep the surfaces from sticking. Talc, with heavy refinement, has been used in baby powder, an astringent powder used to prevent diaper rash. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents not use baby powder because it poses a risk of respiratory problems, including breathing trouble and serious lung damage if the baby inhales it. The small size of the particles makes it difficult to keep them out of the air while applying the powder. Zinc oxide-based ointments are a much safer alternative.[6]

    It is also often used in basketball to keep a player's hands dry. Most tailor's chalk, or French chalk, is talc, as is the chalk often used for welding or metalworking.

    Talc is also used as food additive or in pharmaceutical products as a glidant. In medicine, talc is used as a pleurodesis agent to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax. In the European Union, the additive number is E553b.

    Due to its low shear strength, talc is one of the oldest known solid lubricants. Also a limited use of talc as friction-reducing additive in lubricating oils is made.[7]

    Talc is widely used in the ceramics industry in both bodies and glazes. In low-fire art-ware bodies, it imparts whiteness and increases thermal expansion to resist crazing. In stonewares, small percentages of talc are used to flux the body and therefore improve strength and vitrification. It is a source of MgO flux in high-temperature glazes (to control melting temperature). It is also employed as a matting agent in earthenware glazes and can be used to produce magnesia mattes at high temperatures.



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    Paraffin Wax
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    Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F);[1] its boiling point is >370 °C (698 °F).[2] Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles; [3] dyed paraffin wax can be made into crayons. It is distinct from kerosene and other petroleum products that is sometimes called paraffin.[4]

    Un-dyed, unscented paraffin candles are odorless and bluish-white. Paraffin wax was first created in 1830 in Germany, and marked a major advancement in candlemaking technology, as it burned more cleanly and reliably than tallow candles and was cheaper to produce.[5]

     

      Applications

      In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by adding branching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVA copolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffin with a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarely used for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittle at room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, like beeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expressly formulated for the purpose.

      In a pathology laboratory, paraffin wax is used to impregnate tissue prior to sectioning thin samples of tissue. Water is removed from the tissue through ascending strengths of alcohol (75% to absolute) and the tissue is cleared in an organic solvent such as xylene. The tissue is then placed in paraffin wax for a number of hours and then set in a mold with wax to cool and solidify; sections are then cut on a microtome.

      Other uses
    • Candle-making
    • Wax carving
    • Coatings for waxed paper or cloth
    • Food-grade paraffin wax:
      • Shiny coating used in candy-making; although edible, it is nondigestible, passing right through the body without being broken down
      • Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese
      • Sealant for jars, cans, and bottles
      • Chewing gum additive
    • Investment casting
    • Anti-caking agent, moisture repellent, and dustbinding coatings for fertilizers
    • Agent for preparation of specimens for histology
    • Bullet lubricant – with other ingredients, such as olive oil and beeswax
    • Phlegmatizing agent, commonly used to stabilise/desensitize high explosives such as RDX
    • Crayons




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    Petroleum Jelly
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    Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[1] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.

    After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for many ailments, as well as cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care.

     

    Uses

    Most uses of petroleum jelly exploit its lubricating and coating properties.

    Medical treatment

    Vaseline brand First Aid Petroleum Jelly, or carbolated petroleum jelly containing phenol to give the jelly additional antibacterial effect, has been discontinued. During World War II, a variety of petroleum jelly called red veterinary petrolatum, or Red Vet Pet for short, was often included in life raft survival kits. Acting as a sunscreen, it provides protection against ultraviolet rays.[6]

    The American Academy of Dermatology recommends keeping skin injuries moist with petroleum jelly to reduce scarring.[7] A verified medicinal use is to protect and prevent moisture loss of the skin of a patient in the initial post-operative period following laser skin resurfacing.[8][9]

    There is one case report published in 1994 indicating petroleum jelly should not be applied to the inside of the nose due to the risk of lipid pneumonia, but this was only ever reported in one patient.[10] However, petroleum jelly is used extensively by otolaryngologists—ear, nose, and throat surgeons—for nasal moisture and epistaxis treatment, and to combat nasal crusting. Large studies have assessed petroleum jelly applied to the nose for short durations to have no significant side effects.[11][12][13]

    Historically, it was also consumed for internal use and even promoted as "Vaseline confection".[14][15]

    Skin and hair care

    Most petroleum jelly today is used as an ingredient in skin lotions and cosmetics, providing various types of skin care and protection by minimizing friction or reducing moisture loss, or by functioning as a grooming aid.

    Preventing moisture loss

    By reducing moisture loss, petroleum jelly can prevent chapped hands and lips, and soften nail cuticles.

    This property is exploited to provide heat insulation: petroleum jelly can be used to keep swimmers warm in water when training or during channel crossings or long ocean swims. It can prevent chilling of the face due to evaporation of skin moisture during cold weather outdoor sports.

    Hair grooming

    In the first part of the twentieth century, petroleum jelly, either pure or as an ingredient, was also popular as a hair pomade. When used in a 50/50 mixture with pure beeswax, it makes an effective moustache wax.[16]

    Skin lubrication

    Petroleum jelly can be used to reduce the friction between skin and clothing during various sport activities, for example to prevent chafing of the seat region of cyclists, the nipples of long distance runners wearing loose T-shirts, and is commonly used in the crotch area of wrestlers and footballers.

    Petroleum jelly is commonly used as a personal lubricant because it does not dry out like water-based lubricants, and has a distinctive "feel", different from that of K-Y and related methylcellulose products.



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    Chlorinated Paraffins
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    Chlorinated Paraffins

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    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes. The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between 30 and 70 wt%. CPs are subdivided according to their carbon chain length into short chain CPs (SCCPs, C10–13), medium chain CPs (MCCPs, C14–17) and long chain CPs (LCCPs, C>17). Depending on chain length and chlorine content, CPs are colorless or yellowish liquids or solids.

    Industrial applications

    Production of CPs for industrial use started in the 1930s.[9] Currently, over 200 CP formulations are in use for a wide range of industrial applications, such as flame retardants and plasticisers, as additives in metal working fluids, in sealants, paints, adhesives, textiles, leather fat and coatings.[10]



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    Borax Decahydrate
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    Borax Decahydrate

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    Physical StatePowder

    Borax Decahydrate is the refined form of natural sodium borate. Composed of boric oxide (B2O3), sodium oxide, and water, it is a mild, alkaline salt, white and crystalline, with excellent buffering and fluxing properties. Available in powder or granular form, Borax Decahydrate is an important multifunctional source of B2O3, particularly for processes in which the simultaneous presence of sodium is beneficial.

    Corrosion inhibition
    Borax Decahydrate is incorporated in many aqueous systems requiring corrosion inhibition. It protects ferrous metals against oxidation and finds use in the manufacture of automotive and engine coolant formulations, and various water treatment chemicals.

    The high solubility of Borax Decahydrate in ethylene glycol makes it especially useful in car antifreeze formulations. Borax Decahydrate neutralizes the acidic residue resulting from the decomposition of ethylene glycol and minimizes the rate of oxidation at the surface of the metal. Aqueous solutions of Borax Decahydrate have replaced chromates in railroad and other diesel engine coolants.

    Adhesives
    Borax Decahydrate is part of the starch adhesive formulation for corrugated paper and paperboard, and is a peptizing agent in the manufacture of casein-based and dextrin-based adhesives. It greatly improves the tack and green strength of the adhesive by crosslinking conjugated hydroxyl groups.

    Wire drawing
    Borax Decahydrate neutralizes the residual acid from the pickling stage, and the deposit of the salt remaining on the wire is valuable as a carrier of dry powdered lubricant.

    Refractories
    Borax Decahydrate compounds are used as stabilizers and bonding agents in specialty abrasives. Borax Decahydrate gives an intermediate-temperature glassy bond prior to the establishment of the ceramic bond, at which point the borate compound is frequently volatilized from the system.

    Some other applications
    Borax Decahydrate is used as a flame retardant for cellulosic materials, a buffer and catalyst for organic dyes, a carrier for herbicides, and a degreasing buffer in enamelling processes.



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    Ammonium BiCarbonate

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    Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3. The compound has many names, reflecting its long history. Chemically speaking, it is the bicarbonate salt of the ammonium ion. It is a colourless solid that degrades readily to carbon dioxide, water and ammonia.

    Uses

    Ammonium bicarbonate is used in the food industry as a raising agent for flat baked goods, such as cookies and crackers, and in China in steamed buns and Chinese almond cookies. It was commonly used in the home before modern day baking powder was made available. In China it is called edible or food-grade "smelly powder". Many baking cookbooks (especially from Scandinavian countries) may still refer to it as hartshorn or hornsalt [4][5] (e.g., FI: "hirvensarvisuola", NO: "hjortetakksalt", DK: "hjortetakssalt", SE: "hjorthornssalt", "salt of hart's horn", DE: "Hirschhornsalz"). Although there is a slight smell of ammonia during baking, this quickly dissipates, leaving no taste. It is used in, for example, Swedish "drömmar" biscuits and Danish Christmas biscuits (Hjortetakssalt), and German Lebkuchen. In many cases it may be substituted with baking soda or baking powder or a combination of both, depending on the recipe composition and leavening requirements.[6] Compared to baking soda or potash, hartshorn has the advantage of producing more gas for the same amount of agent, and of not leaving any salty or soapy taste in the finished product, as it completely decomposes into water and gaseous products that evaporate during baking. It cannot be used for moist, bulky baked goods however, such as normal bread or cakes, since some ammonia will be trapped inside and will cause an unpleasant taste.

    It is commonly used as an inexpensive nitrogen fertilizer in China, but is now being phased out in favor of urea for quality and stability. This compound is used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments, and it is also a basic fertilizer being a source of ammonia. Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely used in the plastic and rubber industry, in the manufacture of ceramics, in chrome leather tanning, and for the synthesis of catalysts.[citation needed]

    It is also used for buffering solutions to slightly alkaline pH during chemical purification, such as high-performance liquid chromatography. Because it entirely decomposes to volatile compounds this allows rapid recovery of the compound of interest by freeze-drying.

    Ammonium bicarbonate is also a key component of the expectorant cough syrup "Senega and Ammonia".



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    Aluminium Chloride
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    Aluminium Chloride

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    Aluminium Chloride

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