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Dr. Sagnik Mukherjee

Dum Dum, Kolkata, West Bengal

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Treatment Service

We are a leading Nursing Homes / Clinics / Hospitals of Schizophrenia Treatment Service, Depression Treatment Services, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Service, Addiction Treatment Service, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment Service and Life and Stress Treatment Service from Kolkata, India.

Schizophrenia Treatment Service
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What Is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it hard to:

  • Tell the difference between what is real and not real
  • Think clearly
  • Have normal emotional responses
  • Act normally in social situations

What are the sign and symptoms of schizophrenia
A person who is suffering from schizophrenia may present positive and/or negative symptoms. Positive symptoms reflect a distortion or exaggeration of functions that are normally present, whereas negative symptoms reflect a deficiency of a mental function that is normally present.

Positive symptoms

  • Hallucinations (hearing voices)
  • Delusions (suspicions)
  • Bizarre or disorganized behaviour(self-muttering, laughing to self, violent behaviour etc.)

Negative symptoms

  • Not talking
  • Social withdrawal
  • Emotional blunting (i.e. not displaying any emotion whether positive or negative)
  • Apathy
  • Attention impairment
  • Lack of motivation and drive

What are the causes of Schizophrenia
The causes of schizophrenia are not fully known. However, it appears that schizophrenia usually results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors.

Can schizophrenia be treated?
Response to treatment is usually very good. Properly treated patients can live a very healthy social life however untreated psychosis can cause a considerable amount of suffering, distress and bafflement to the person who has the condition and to those around him. In addition, persons with untreated psychosis are at a higher risk of suicide, aggression and drug abuse. Seeking professional help early is important.

Medications are the main stay of treatment.

Besides medication, another effective form of treatment is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy helps the person make sense of his illness, can take various forms and can be conducted on a one-to-one basis or in a group setting. Issues that may need to be dealt with include: the person’s feelings about the illness, his / her experience of medication, denying the illness, the impact that the illness has on the person’s self-esteem, interpersonal relations and other aspects of his / her life.

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  • Depression Treatment Services
  • Depression Treatment Services
Depression Treatment Services
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What is depression?
Depression is a common mental disorder with an estimated 350 million people affected, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness, and poor concentration. Depression can be long-lasting or recurrent, substantially impairing an individual’s ability to function at work or school or cope with daily life. At its most severe, depression can lead to suicide. Over 800 000 people die due to suicide every year. Suicide is the second leading cause of death in 15-29-year-olds. When mild, people can be treated without medicines but when depression is moderate or severe they may need medication and professional talking treatments.

What are the sign n symptoms of depression?

  • Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. A bleak outlook—nothing will ever get better and there’s nothing you can do to improve your situation.
  • Loss of interest in daily activities. No interest in former hobbies, pastimes, social activities, or sex. You’ve lost your ability to feel joy and pleasure.
  • Appetite or weight changes. Significant weight loss or weight gain—a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month.
  • Sleep changes. Either insomnia, especially waking in the early hours of the morning, or oversleeping (also known as hypersomnia).
  • Anger or irritability. Feeling agitated, restless, or even violent. Your tolerance level is low, your temper short, and everything and everyone gets on your nerves.
  • Loss of energy. Feeling fatigued, sluggish, and physically drained. Your whole body may feel heavy, and even small tasks are exhausting or take longer to complete.
  • Self-loathing. Strong feelings of worthlessness or guilt. You harshly criticize yourself for perceived faults and mistakes.
  • Reckless behavior. You engage in escapist behavior such as substance abuse, compulsive gambling, reckless driving, or dangerous sports.
  • Concentration problems. Trouble focusing, making decisions, or remembering things.
  • Unexplained aches and pains. An increase in physical complaints such as headaches, back pain, aching muscles, and stomach pain.
Warning signs of suicide include
  • Talking about killing or harming one’s self
  • Expressing strong feelings of hopelessness or being trapped
  • An unusual preoccupation with death or dying
  • Acting recklessly, as if they have a death wish (e.g. speeding through red lights)
  • Calling or visiting people to say goodbye
  • Getting affairs in order (giving away prized possessions, tying up loose ends)
  • Saying things like “Everyone would be better off without me” or “I want out”
  • A sudden switch from being extremely depressed to acting calm and happy

Sign and symptoms of teenage depression
It''s hard to put into words how depression feels, and people experience it differently. There are, however, some common problems and symptoms that teens with depression experience.

  • You constantly feel irritable, sad, or angry.
  • Nothing seems fun anymore, and you just don''t see the point of trying.
  • You feel bad about yourself—worthless, guilty, or just "wrong" in some way
  • You sleep too much or not enough.
  • You have frequent, unexplained headaches or other physical problems.

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  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Service
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Service
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Service
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What is ADHD?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behaviour, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

What are the symptoms of ADHD in children?
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:

  1. Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  2. Have difficulty focusing on one thing
  3. Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
  4. Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
  5. Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  6. Not seem to listen when spoken to
  7. Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
  8. Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  9. Struggle to follow instructions.
  10. Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
  11. Fidget and squirm in their seats
  12. Talk nonstop
  13. Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
  14. Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
  15. Be constantly in motion
  16. Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:

  1. Be very impatient
  2. Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
  3. Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
  4. Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities.
What are the Causes of ADHD?

The specific causes of ADHD are still not known, however, a number of factors are identified to contribute to its development.

Genetics
Recent studies have indicated that the condition is extremely heritable and that the genetic makeup of a person is a component in seventy-five percent of all cases. Experts believe that a vast majority of ADHD conditions develop from a mixture of a variety of genes. Individuals who have close relatives with this ailment have a greater chance of acquiring ADHD themselves.

Environment
Infections during the mother’s pregnancy or in early childhood are related to an elevated probability of the child to develop ADHD. Some environmental factors suggested as a factor consist of liquor and cigarette smoke exposure in the course of maternity and environmental exposure in the early life of the child.

Head Injuries or Traumas
For some individuals, ADHD is an effect of a head trauma or a brain injury sometime in the past. Youngsters who have encountered a brain injury may demonstrate some behavior that is comparable to those people who has ADHD.

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  • Addiction Treatment Service
  • Addiction Treatment Service
Addiction Treatment Service
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What is addiction?
Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse dependency consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors.

Addictions can include, but are not limited to, drug abuse, exercise abuse, sexual activity and gambling. Classic hallmarks of addiction include: impaired control over substances/behavior, preoccupation with substance/behavior, continued use despite consequences, and denial.

It is characterized by the following :

  • The person continues the addictive behavior despite the consequences
  • The frequency or intensity of the behaviour increases over time
  • When the behaviour is stopped, the person experiences unpleasant feelings and emotions
What Are The Signs and Symptoms?

Signs of a possible gambling problem

  • Gambles more often
  • Gamble for longer periods of time
  • Gambles with larger amounts of money
  • Incurs debts as a result of gambling
  • Borrows money to gamble
  • Gambles in spite of negative consequences, e.g. huge losses, poor job performance, relationship problems.
  • Gambles to escape from emotional problems, worries or frustrations
  • Tells lies to hide/deny the gambling habit

Signs of a possible alcohol problem

  • Loses control over drinking
  • Feels that drinking is getting out of hand and feels the need to cut down
  • Feels annoyed when people criticize his drinking
  • Has cravings to drink in the morning, or needs alcohol to steady his nerves
  • Feels remorseful or guilty about drinking

Signs of a possible drug problem

  • Preoccupied with finding and consuming drugs
  • Finds excuses to continue using drugs, despite promises to quit
  • Conceals drug-taking behaviour, and is afraid of being discovered
  • Has health and sleep problems
  • Has frequent accidents and falls
  • Feels exhausted and depressed because of drug use

How and Whom To Seek For Help?
If you think that you or someone you care about is addicted to drugs or alcohol, recognizing the problem is the first step in getting help.

Many people think they can kick the problem on their own, but that rarely works. Find someone you trust to talk to. It may help to talk to a friend or someone your own age at first, but a supportive and understanding adult is your best option for getting help. If you can’t talk to your parents, you might want to approach a school counsellor, relative, doctor, favourite teacherUnfortunately, overcoming addiction is not easy. Quitting drugs or drinking is probably going to be one of the hardest things you or your friend have ever done. It’s not a sign of weakness if you need professional help from a trained drug counsellor or therapist. Most people who try to kick a drug or alcohol problem need professional assistance or a treatment program to do so.

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  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment Service
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment Service
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Treatment Service
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Do you feel troubled by excessive worries? Unable to relax? Difficulty sleeping?
Do you or your family member have an anxiety disorder? In an anxiety disorder, there is an excessive amount of anxiety which is troublesome to the sufferer. There are various types of anxiety disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one type.

If you have GAD, you may have a persistent worry and anxiety about many things, usually pertaining to finances, family, work, studies and other aspects of daily life. There is little or no specific stressor that can obviously provoke it. You may find it difficult to control the anxiety and there may be also other symptoms such as muscle tension, headaches, difficulty concentrating and sleep difficulties.

What happens in a psychiatric consultation?
Do you need assessment and treatment? If you have the above symptoms and they are causing distress and affecting your life, it is time to consult a doctor. A psychiatrist will ask you about your symptoms, background history and medical history. Further invetigations may be done in needed. After the diagnosis is made, the psychiatrist decides on the individualized treatment for you. All information shared during the consultations is strictly confidential.

How is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) treated?
This can be in the form of medications and/or psychological therapy. Medications are effective and help to reduce anxiety.

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  • Life and Stress Treatment Service
  • Life and Stress Treatment Service
Life and Stress Treatment Service
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What is Stress?
We all know how the demands of modern living can leave us overwhelmed at times. It should not be too difficult to recall a period of time when life became “stressful”.

Stress is our body’s normal reaction to a change in our environment that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. The stress response is our body’s way of helping us stay vigilant and focused on the task at hand.

A stressor is a stimulus that causes stress. External stressors can range from a forthcoming examination, difficulties at work, financial problems, marital tension to illness or demise of a loved one. Sometimes, not all stress can be attributed to external causes. Stress that is “self-generated” can be caused by an inflexible, pessimistic attitude, persistent self-defeating thoughts, tendency towards perfectionism, unrealistic expectations, and inability to be assertive or accept uncertainty.

Good stress Vs Bad Stress can come from any situation or thought that makes a person feel frustrated, angry, fearful or anxious. Then again, not all kinds of stress are bad. Stress can be both facilitating and debilitating effects.

Good Stress or “Eustress” in small doses enhances arousal and improves performance. Bad stress or “Distress” on the other hand, is excessive. “Distress” results a decrease in motor, learning and other intellectual abilities and eventually, deterioration in performance.

A “Stressful” Toll
Excessive stress is unpleasant and unhealthy for our minds and bodies in the longer term. Prolonged exposure to high amounts of stress has been associated with high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, insomnia, depression, gastritis and eczema, just to name a few.

Dealing with Stress
No matter what curve balls life throws at us, the good news is that our tolerance to stress can be improved.

Things we can do include having good knowledge about the stressor you are facing, developing an internal sense of control, maintaining a positive attitude and optimistic outlook, using effective emotional regulation strategies and growing a good social support network.

While we will all learn to cope eventually, one of the first steps you can take to regain control when stress becomes unbearable may be to talk to someone about your problems or seek help from a professional can be useful.

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  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Service
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Service
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Service
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What is OCD?
OCD, or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3% in the general population. It occurs in children, adolescents and adults, and both men and women are equally likely to get it. It is a chronic disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions.

Obsessions are thoughts, images, or impulses that occur over and over again and are beyond one’s control. Moreover, these thoughts and images can be disturbing, repulsive, silly or senseless. In response to these obsessions, many sufferers develop compulsions, i.e. repetitive behaviors or thoughts that neutralize or make the obsessions go away. Compulsions cannot totally relieve the obsessions long-term and hence the repetitive nature of compulsions makes them time-consuming.

Also OCD sufferers recognize that their thoughts and actions are irrational and excessive and become distressed by this realization.
What are some examples of OCD? The content of OCD is highly variable. Here are some of the more common examples. In sufferers with obsessive fear of contamination (by germs, dirt etc), they have compulsive cleaning. The cleaning may be in the form of excessively frequent hand washing, bathing or cleaning of items, sometimes employing copious use of soap and other cleaning agents and in fixed patterns of accomplishing the acts (known as “rituals”).

Why Is OCD Problematic For The Sufferer?
Because the OCD sufferer spends an excessive amount of time cleaning and checking, he or she may not have enough time for important daily tasks. There will be problems with being late for appointments and being unable to hand in assignments on time. The compulsions also affect other family members and friends and the relationship with others becomes strained. Some family members are even “recruited” into the cleaning and checking rituals. Many OCD sufferers and their loved ones are stressed and exhausted by these obsessions and compulsions. Some OCD symptoms can be bizarre in their content and sufferers fear that they might be going mad. Many also become depressed, are unable to sleep and some even entertain suicidal thoughts.

How Do I Know If I Need Assessment And Treatment?
If you have the above symptoms and they are causing distress and affecting your life, it is time to consult a doctor. Many people suffer needlessly from these symptoms, which is unfortunate because OCD can be treated. Sometimes OCD symptoms can be bizarre and may be confused with other mental disorders such as psychosis, and a detailed assessment by a psychiatrist can help to distinguish between them as it has an impact on treatment. Besides eliciting OCD symptoms, the doctor will check if you are depressed because many OCD sufferers are also suffering from depression. Physical investigations such as blood tests and brain scans may or may not be required. After the diagnosis is made, the psychiatrist decides on the treatment for you.

How Is OCD Treated?
This is achieved using pharmacologic (medical) and/or non-pharmacologic approaches.
Cognitive behaviorial therapy (CBT) is useful for treatment of OCD. It may be used alone (for mild cases of OCD) or in combination with medicines.

The specific technique employed in treatment of OCD is Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP).

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  • Sleep Disorder Treatment Service
  • Sleep Disorder Treatment Service
Sleep Disorder Treatment Service
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What is Sleep Disorder?
Sleep is very important for both physical and mental health. During sleep the body repairs its wear and tear and the mind restores its optimal functions. Sleep is therefore a necessity as well as therapeutic when one is ill. However, the quantity and quality of sleep are believed to decline gradually after adulthood. There is less deep and more interrupted sleep.

Most of us have experienced trouble sleeping at one time or another. This is normal and usually temporary, due to stress or other outside factors. But if sleep problems are a regular occurrence and interfere with your daily life, you may be suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep disorders cause more than just sleepiness. The lack of quality sleep can have a negative impact on your energy, emotional balance, and health. If you’re experiencing sleeping problems, learn about the symptoms of common sleep disorders, what you can do to help yourself, and when to see a doctor.

Why Are There Sleep Disorders And Sleeping Problems?
Sleep can often be a barometer of your overall health. In many cases, people in good health tend to sleep well, whereas those suffering from repeated sleeping problems might have an underlying medical or mental health problem, be it minor or serious. Sleeping well is essential to your physical health and emotional well-being. Unfortunately, even minimal sleep loss can take a toll on your mood, energy, efficiency, and ability to handle stress. Ignoring sleep problems and disorders can lead to poor health, accidents, impaired job performance, and relationship stress. If you want to feel your best, stay healthy, and perform up to your potential, sleep is a necessity, not a luxury.

It’s not normal to feel sleepy during the day, to have problems getting to sleep at night, or to wake up feeling exhausted. But even if you’ve struggled with sleep problems for so long that it seems normal, you can still learn to sleep better. You can start by tracking your symptoms and sleep patterns, and then making healthy changes to your daytime habits and bedtime routine. If self-help doesn’t do the trick, you can turn to sleep specialists who are trained in sleep medicine. Together, you can identify the underlying causes of your sleeping problem and find ways to improve your sleep and quality of life.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Sleep Disorders And Sleeping Problems?
Everyone experiences occasional sleeping problems, but how can you tell whether your sleeping problem is just a minor, passing annoyance or a sign of a more serious sleep disorder or underlying medical condition?

Start by scrutinizing your symptoms, looking especially for the telltale daytime signs of sleep deprivation. If you are experiencing any of the following symptoms on a regular basis, you may be dealing with a sleep disorder.

Is It a Sleep Disorder? Do you . . .

  1. feel irritable or sleepy during the day?
  2. have difficulty staying awake when sitting still, watching television or reading?
  3. fall asleep or feel very tired while driving?
  4. have difficulty concentrating?
  5. often get told by others that you look tired?
  6. react slowly?
  7. have trouble controlling your emotions?
  8. feel like you have to take a nap almost every day?
  9. require caffeinated beverages to keep yourself going?

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Phobia Treatment Service
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Phobia Treatment Service

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What Is Phobia?
A phobia is defined as an irrational and intense fear of a specific object or situation. Phobias are classified as anxiety disorders by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and are the leading type of mental illness in adult women. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, between 8.7% and 18.1% of Americans suffer from a phobia.

Phobias vary in severity from person to person. Some people are able to manage their symptoms and face the feared object, albeit with a great sense of terror. Others are motivated by the phobia to avoid the feared situation, sometimes at great personal cost.

What Are The Common Symptoms?
Phobias can be divided into three types: specific phobia, social phobia and agoraphobia. Although the symptoms of each type will vary, there are some symptoms common to all phobias.

These include:

  1. Terror: A persistent and overwhelming fear of the object or situation.
  2. Physical Symptoms: Dizziness, shaking, palpitations.
  3. Obsessive Thoughts: Difficulty thinking about anything other than the fear.
  4. Desire to Flee: An intense instinct to leave the situation.
  5. Anticipatory Anxiety: Persistent worrying about upcoming events that involve the phobic object or situation

Differential Diagnosis 
One of the most important steps in diagnosing a phobia is deciding whether the symptoms are better explained by another disorder. Phobias can be traced to specific, concrete fears that adult sufferers recognize as irrational.
The fact that the fear is concrete separates phobias from disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, in which the anxiety is more broad-based. Phobia sufferers are able to pinpoint an exact object or situation that they fear.
Being able to recognize the fear as irrational separates anxiety disorders from the psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. People who suffer from psychotic disorders genuinely believe that the fear is based on a real danger, though the nature of the danger appears illogical to others.

No matter what type of phobia you have, it’s likely to produce the following reactions:

  1. A feeling of uncontrollable anxiety when you’re exposed to the source of your fear — sitting on an airplane, for instance, or walking into a large party
  2. The feeling that you must do everything possible to avoid what you fear
  3. The inability to function normally because of your anxiety
  4. Often, the knowledge that your fears are unreasonable or exaggerated, but feeling powerless to control them
  5. Physical as well as psychological reactions, including sweating, rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, a feeling of panic and intense anxiety
  6. In some cases, anxiety just thinking about what you fear
  7. In children, possibly tantrums, clinging or crying
When to consult  a doctor?
An unreasonable fear can be an annoyance — having to take the stairs instead of an elevator, for instance — but it isn’t considered a phobia unless it seriously disrupts your life. If anxiety affects your ability to function at work or socially, consider seeking medical or psychological treatment. Most people can be helped with the right therapy.

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Panic Disorder Treatment Service
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Do you have sudden moments of intense fear accompanied by palpitations, breathlessness, dizziness and other physical symptoms?

Do you have Panic Disorder?

A panic attack is a sudden surge of overwhelming fear that can come without warning and without any obvious reason. It is also accompanied by some or all of the following symptoms:

  • Heart beating fast
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Dizziness, light-headedness, nausea
  • Trembling, sweating, shaking
  • Choking, chest discomfort
  • Fear that you’re going to go crazy or are about to die
  • Tingling sensation in fingers or toes (“pins and needles”), numbness

Panic attacks can occur without warning and can also precipitated by situations and thoughts that are anxiety provoking. Because it is associated with many physical symptoms such as palpitations and breathlessness, many sufferers think they have a medical condition such as a heart attack.

Do you need assessment and treatment?
If you have the above symptoms and they are causing distress and affecting your life, it is time to consult a doctor. Panic disorder is a chronic condition and as it progresses, the sufferer may become very fearful of having another panic attack in a public place. This may lead to refusal to leave his or her house, a condition known as agoraphobia. Hence Panic Disorder can impair the social and occupational function of the sufferer and lower the quality of life of the sufferer.

What happens in a psychiatric consultation?
An in-depth interview by a psychiatrist will include asking questions on the symptoms, your background history and medical history. Further investigation may be done if needed to ensure that a physical illness is not a cause of the panic attacks. After the diagnosis is made, the psychiatrist decides on the treatment for you. All information shared during the consultations is strictly confidential.

How is Panic Disorder treated?
Panic disorder is treated using medications and/or psychological therapy. Medications effectively help to reduce anxiety.

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