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Bad Obstetric Treatments Services

Bad Obstetric Treatments Services

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Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, Treatments
A woman is said to have 'bad obstetric history (BOH)' if she has experienced any of the following events on two or more occasions in the past
-Consecutive spontaneous abortions.
-Early neonatal deaths.
-Stillbirths.
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Dhawan Clinic

Indira Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
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Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, Treatments

A woman is said to have 'bad obstetric history (BOH)' if she has experienced any of the following events on two or more occasions in the past
-Consecutive spontaneous abortions.
-Early neonatal deaths.
-Stillbirths.
-Intrauterine fetal deaths.
-Intrauterine growth retardation.
-Congenital anomalies in the fetus.

However, it is the occurrence of three consecutive pregnancy losses that constitutes the classic definition of BOH. This condition is seen in 1-2% of couples.1

CAUSES The most common causes of recurrent miscarriages are shown in Table 1.2

IMMUNOLOGICAL CAUSES OF BOH The immune factors associated with pregnancy loss are classified as autoimmune and alloimmune factors.


AUTOIMMUNE FACTORS These factors include the presence of certain autoantibodies, namely

-Antiphospholipid antibodies These antibodies enhance the coagulability of blood, making it clot more easily than is normal during pregnancy. The clots thus formed in the placental blood vessels may impede the fetus' blood supply, resulting in miscarriage. Antiphospholipid antibodies are present in 15% of women with recurrent miscarriage. The association between phospholipid antibodies and recurrent miscarriage is referred to as Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). The main types of antiphospholipid antibodies are

-Lupus Anticoagulant (LA).
-Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies (IgG and IgM).
-Anti-b2 Glycoprotein I antibodies.1
-Antinuclear antibodies Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) are circulating immunoglobulins, e.g., IgG, IgA and IgM, which attack the whole nucleus or its components.1 These antibodies have also been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss, even in patients without evidence of overt autoimmune disease, but further investigation is needed into their exact role in causing recurrent miscarriages. Therefore, measuring ANAs is not recommended as part of an evaluation of recurrent miscarriage.
-Antithyroid antibodies Unlike ANA, antithyroid antibodies are known as independent markers for an increased risk of miscarriage. However, since the pathophysiology involved in this phenomenon is unclear, antithyroid antibody testing is not recommended in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

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Bad Obstetric Treatments Services

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Nature of BusinessNursing Homes / Clinics / Hospitals
IndiaMART Member SinceJun 2018
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277 A-555
Indira Nagar
Lucknow - 226016, Uttar Pradesh, India

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