Wireless connectivity is a key component, or can even be considered the key component, of the Internet of Things. Embedded systems in the Medical, Building Automation, Smart Grid, Transportation, Industrial, and other markets are more often built with wireless connectivity than without, with the connectivity called Machine-to-Machine or M2M communication. The Internet of Things (IoT) need not necessarily be comprised of devices and equipment designed afresh to be M2M capable, but would have a host of legacy equipment, sensors, and other devices into the M2M concept. The devices may thus employ various wireless data transfer methods and protocols, including 802.11 WLAN (or Wi-Fi®), Bluetooth® 3.0 and 4.0, and ZigBee® among others. Each is designed for specific range of usage and applications, but they all contribute to connecting devices into the IoT. Using the right connectivity technology is critical because M2M communication is rarely just a direct link between two machines. It usually involves a network of varying complexity comprising machines, sensors, equipment, controllers, storage devices and servers. Increasingly, this involves centralizing the intelligence in a gateway server while keeping devices relatively simple.
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