Solid-Liquid separation involves the separation of two phases, solid and liquid, from a suspension. It is used in many processes for the:
1. recovery of valuable solid component (the liquid being discarded);
2. liquid recovery (the solids being discarded);
3. recovery of both solid and liquid; or
4. recovery of neither phase (e.g., when a liquid is being cleaned prior to discharge, as in the prevention of water pollution).
Any separation system design must consider all stages of pre-treatment, solids concentration, solids separation, and post-treatment. This encompasses a wide range of equipment and processes, summarized in Table 1. Pre-treatment is used primarily with difficult-to-filter slurries, enabling them to be filtered more easily. It usually involves changing the nature of the suspended solids by either chemical or physical means, or by adding a solid (filter aid) to the suspension to act as a bulking agent to increase the permeability of the cake formed during subsequent filtration. In solids concentration, part of the liquid may be removed by (gravity or centrifugal) thickening or hydrocycloning to reduce liquid volume throughput load on the filter.
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