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X Ray Diffraction Simulation Experiment
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X Ray Diffraction Simulation Experiment

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X-Ray Diffraction Simulation
Identification of Lattice and Determination of Lattice Constant by X-Ray DiffractionSimulation
IntroductionRegular arrangement of atoms in molecules and extended solids is very common. In crystalline solids theatoms are arranged in repeating three-dimensional arrays or lattices. Information regarding atomic bonddistances and...
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Safire Scientific Company

R. S. Puram, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
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X-Ray Diffraction Simulation

Identification of Lattice and Determination of Lattice Constant by X-Ray DiffractionSimulation

IntroductionRegular arrangement of atoms in molecules and extended solids is very common. In crystalline solids theatoms are arranged in repeating three-dimensional arrays or lattices. Information regarding atomic bonddistances and angles is fundamental to understanding the chemical and physical properties of materials. Sinceatomic dimensions are of the order of angstroms (10 m), unraveling the relative atomic positions of a solidrequires a physical technique that operates on a similar spatial scale, Diffraction experiments involving X-ray,electron and neutron sources have therefore played a very crucial role in unraveling these structures. Thesignificance of these experiments in science and engineering courses has been recognized. However, the costof the equipment and the hazards associated with these experiments have made them very difficult to beintegrated and included in a teaching laboratory setting.The present set-up overcomes these limitations. An increase in scale by thousands from short wavelengths ofX-rays to the long wavelengths of visible light, and by hundreds of thousands from an array of atoms in acrystal or an extended solid to an array of dots, allows us to replicate the basic features of a structuraldetermination experiment in a teaching laboratory.In place of Bragg diffraction whose results are to be simulated, we use Fraunhofer diffraction. Visible laser lightpasses through an array of scattering centers (dots) on a 35 mm slide. The diffraction pattern is viewed atwhat is effectively infinite distance (a meter or so). This arrangement is capable of illustrating many of theessential features of the standard X-ray experiment. Mathematically, the equations for Fraunhofer and Braggdiffraction have a similar functional dependence on the interatomic distance, wavelength and the scatteringangle. The symmetry of the diffraction pattern is same as the symmetry of the lattice causing the diffraction.The central piece of the set-up is a slide (transparency) with eight (A-H) different arrangements of scatteringcenters (dots) on different portions of the slide (Figure 3). The examples presented here serve to illustratehow the spacings, symmetries, spot intensities and systematic absences in a diffraction pattern are related tothe lattice from which it is derived. Although these are two-dimensional lattices, they mimic what would beobserved for diffraction from particular three-dimensional structures that are viewed in projectionperpendicular to a face.
SetupA battery operated laser mounted on a stand is put at one end of anoptical bench. The slide is mounted on another stand (Figure 1)which is kept at about 10-20 cm away from the laser such that thelaser light falls normally on the slide. The slide on this stand can bemoved sideways and vertically so that the laser light falls ondifferent portions of the slide. The diffraction pattern is observed ona perspex screen (Figure 2) fixed normal to the laser light at theother end of the optical bench. The whole set-up is put in adarkened room where the experiment is performed.
AimThe basic aim of the experiment is to identify the lattice and to determine its lattice constant.

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X Ray Diffraction Simulation Experiment

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Year of Establishment1980
Legal Status of FirmProprietorship
Nature of BusinessManufacturer
Number of EmployeesUpto 10 People
Annual TurnoverRs. 2 - 5 Crore
IndiaMART Member SinceJul 2004
We, “Safire Scientific Company” from 1979 are actively engaged in manufacturing, supplying, exporting and trading a broad array of high-quality Scientific Lab Equipment. In our offered range, we have Imported Laboratory Instruments, Imported Weighing Balances, and Autoclave. These offered assortments are made by taking high-grade components as per the well-defined industry norms. Our offered ranges of products are broadly demanded by the clients for their unique attributes like high durability, easy to use and supreme quality. Also, we are offering this assortment as per the client specific requirements at the nominal market price range. These offered ranges are used in leading educational institutions, Biotech & Industrial Laboratories, Testing Units of Goldsmiths and Research Scholars.
We are backed with the state-of-the-art infrastructural set up for manufacturing our offered range of products. Moreover, we are backed by a team of hard-working professionals, who always put their effort towards the favor of our organization. Our team of quality experts ensures that every product is manufactured from superior quality raw material to as per the industry quality standards. As a client centric firm, we always try to satisfy our customers by delivering them their preferred products timely. Apart from this, these attributes have allowed us to build vast customer base all across the nation. Some of them are Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Annamalai University and Bharathiar University. Also, we offer these products under the Loba Chemie, Sigma-Alorich, Supelco, Merck, Fluka, Rankem, Alfa Aesar, Acros Organics, Himedia, Nice, Spectrum, Fisher Chemical, Fisher Scientific, Hanna, Labomed and Olympus Brand names in the market. We export our products all over the world.

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