Spectro Analytical Labs Limited

Govindpuri, New Delhi, Delhi

| GST  07AACCS2840R1ZX


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Testing Services

Our service range includes a wide range of Ferrography Testing Services, Metallography Testing Service, Corrosion Testing Service, Failure Analysis Laboratory Service, Non Destructive Testing Service and Welded Structure Service.

Ferrography Testing Services
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Ferrography involves separation of solid particles from the oils and examine them under a microscope for checking the characteristics like particle size, composition, concentration, morphology and surface condition of ferrous as well as non-ferrous wear particles. The total number of particles in unit volume of oil sample is assumed as Wear Particle Concentration (WPC). It is always better to monitor the particles being generated within the oil which gets mixed up from the machine components or environment. It helps to detect the critical stage which may lead to component failure.

Spectro provide services for Ferrography testing of oils which are used in machines and equipments. It enhances the life of equipments by providing an early warning related to failure or damage. These days, Analytical Ferrography has become one of the most powerful techniques to analyze various oil samples. Although the test protocols are lengthy and demands skilled personnel, yet the technique gives excellent return. This technique provides examination at micro level and analyzing the debris present in lubricating oils. These particles may be metallic or non-metallic in nature. By employing Ferrographic Technology, we can extract, classify and visualize the size, shape and number of particles present.

This technique can also be called as Wear Particle Analysis, Wear Debris Analysis or Machine Condition Monitoring. It comprise of both, qualitative as well as quantitative studies.

Analysis of Toxic elements/Heavy metals in Food
After the complete analysis of oil sample, we provide a comprehensive diagnosis report by an email along with a hard copy. It includes a complete interpretation and colored picture of wear particles taken from microscope.

Available test methods:
  • D-6304 Water content
  • D-5185 Wear metals in used oil
  • D-7690 Analytical Ferrography
  • NAS-1638 and ISO-4406 Particle count
  • D-3278 Flash point
  • D-2982 Anti-freeze detection
  • D-2896 Base number
  • D-1401 Demulsifier
  • D-893 Insolubles in used oil
  • D-892 Foam test
  • D-664 Acid number
  • D-445 Viscosity
Lubricating oil test include:
  • Acidity: Acid number of petroleum products by potentiometric titration
  • Anti-freeze: Detection of Glycol-based Anti-freeze
  • Caustics: Base number of petroleum products by potentiometric perchloric acid titration
  • Ferrography: Preventive maintenance test based on wear particle analysis
Advantages of Ferrography Testing:
  • Predicts the condition of lubricants
  • Prevents machine breakdown, thereby saving money
  • Provides correct detail about oil condition and gives tremendous results
  • Prevents the occurrence of accidents
  • Protect equipments
  • Extends the life of components

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Metallography Testing Service
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Metallography is that branch of science which deals with the study of properties and structure of metals and alloys by making use of X-Ray Diffraction and other Microscopic Techniques. The main objective of carrying out metallographic tests is to examine the microstructure of any metal or an alloy sample. The three dimensional arrangement of the atomic elements ranging from 1µm to 1mm is examined by the means of Light Optical or Scanning Electron Microscope.

Some of the interesting features which are studied under microstructure are phase transformation, volume fractions, grain size, phases, grain boundaries, morphology, effective case depth, banding, non-metallic inclusions in steel, porosity, cross contamination and several others. The microstructures signify the mechanical properties such as corrosion resistance, toughness, strength, mechanical workability and ductility and influence their applications. The specimen preparation for carrying out metallographic testing is a very crucial step and Spectro has set a well devoted workshop for this purpose. The steps that needs to be followed for sample preparation are documentation, sectioning, cutting, mounting, planar grinding, rough polishing, final polishing, etching, microscopic analysis and hardness testing .

Significance of Metallographic studies:
  • It gives an idea about the composition of an alloy, like the amount of Carbon in Steel, % of Tin present in Bronze, etc.
  • It gives information about the annealing temperature, tempering and quenching ranges.
  • It signifies the type and extent of corrosion, internal and external both.
  • It provides details about the nature of surface coating.
  • It provides information about the manufacturing details of an object like soldering, welding, casting, etc. Because a complete knowledge of microstructure of metals and alloys is required to understand and control their behavior thus, Spectro offers metallographic testing facilities which aids to quality assurance, failure analysis and also research and development.
Tests under Metallographic Testing:
  • Hardness Testing: Rockwell, Vicker, Knoop, Microhardness and Case depth.
  • Coating Testing: Adhesion, Bend test, Spot test, Weight test, Thickness test, pore count, SEM, etc.
  • Metals Chemistry: Coating weight, Elemental analysis through ICP-OES, Density and Specific gravity, etc.
  • Forming Evaluation: Bend test, Flare test, Coil test
  • Microstructure Evaluation: SEM, Heat treatment, Weld evaluation, Grain size, Carburization and Decarburization, Case depth, Casting discontinuous, Inclusion content, etc.
  • Image Enhancement
  • Corrosion Rate Testing
  • Fractography
  • Radiography, Ultrasonic and Eddy Current Testing

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Corrosion Testing Service
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Corrosion as we all know is an electrochemical reaction between material and environment which deteriorates the quality of the article and its life. The degree of severity of corrosion depends upon various factors out of which environmental parameters are the most common, such as temperature, humidity, chemical composition, etc.

Corrosion can be prevented by various techniques which include corrosion testing methods. These method aims at checking the ability of the material to withstand the artificially induced corrosive environment without disintegration. The results from corrosion testing can be used for Failure Analysis of several commercially important engineering materials.

Spectro Analytical Labs Limited is extremely competent to undertake any kind of corrosion testing as per the specified National and International Standards.

Types of Corrosion
Depending upon the various physical morphology of the attack, the types of corrosion are classified into various groups. Some of the types of aqueous corrosion are: Pitting corrosion, Erosion corrosion, Galvanic corrosion, Uniform corrosion, Crevice corrosion, Inter-granular corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

Corrosion Tests we carry out:
  • Copper-Copper Sulfate-50% Sulfuric Acid, ASTM A262, Practice F and Practice E (Straus Test)
  • Crevice Corrosion
  • Cyclic Corrosion Test started as per International Standards
  • Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid, ASTM A262, Practice B
  • Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (HIC) Test, NACE TMO284
  • Nitric Acid, ASTM A262, Practice C, (Huey Test)
  • Oxalic Acid Test, ASTM A262, Practice A
  • Pitting Corrosion Test, ASTM Gr 48
  • Salt Spray (Neutral / Fog), ASTM B117
  • Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSCC), NACE TM 0177
Major Equipments we possess:
  • Ammonia Vapour Test Apparatus
  • Crevice Corrosion Test Apparatus
  • Electrolyte Etching Machine
  • IGC Apparatus
  • HIC Apparatus
  • Potentiometer Test Apparatus
  • Salt Spray Test Apparatus
  • SSC Apparatus

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Failure Analysis Laboratory Service
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Failure is a shortcoming which is encountered when a machine or a structure has not been made according to the desired specifications. It is a result of deterioration in quality especially strength. Failure leads to defects in a test material, loss of service life and loss of functioning.

Failure Analysis of engineering material is a systematic way to diagnose the cause of failure of a component and preventing the risk of future failures. After the complete investigation, a report is prepared which includes all the data obtained and its results with the preventive measures to be taken.

From past several years, Spectro is providing a facility to find out the root cause of the failure and recommends the methods to avoid related issues. Under Failure Analysis technique, we provide information on selection of material, processing techniques and efficient designing of a component.

The causes of Failure in a material
  • Manufacturing defects
  • Errors in designing and assembling
  • Inadequate environmental protection
  • Inadequate quality assurance
  • Improper selection of material
Steps under Failure Analysis:
  • Gaining a complete background information of the material
  • Carrying out visual inspection and making a record of the evidences
  • Conducting tests like Non-Destructive testing, Macroscopic examination, Mechanical testing, Metallographic examination and several others to diagnose the failure causes
  • Data analysis to get a conclusion
  • Provide suggestions for avoiding the material failure
Advantages of Failure Analysis:
Through Failure Analysis, one can identify the defects and flaws in a sample material and can prevent the failure to avoid accidents related to its use or installation. It also enhances the design to improve its durability and reliability.

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Non Destructive Testing Service
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Non-Destructive Testing or NDT is a technique to inspect, test or analyze a material or a whole assembly for the discontinuities in its characteristics without damaging the system and its parts. The main advantage of NDT is that the sample can be used even after the testing is complete. It is a highly valuable technique because it saves time and money both.

This technique is more effective in comparison to other destructive tests which are used to determine the physical properties of a material, whereas NDT determines the discontinuities in a material which further affect its characteristics.

Highly skilled, knowledgeable and experienced person is required to conduct these tests and Spectro possess a team of such talented individuals. Our NDT inspectors are well-trained in carrying out Structural and Building Material testing, both on-site and in laboratory.

The regular services are being provided to several industries which include Thermal Power Plants, Hydro Power, Petroleum Refineries, etc. We also offer Residual Life Assessment and Structural Safety Tests for bridges, buildings, water tanks, huge structures and all.

The methods which are commonly carried out in NDT are Liquid Penetrant Testing, Ultrasonic Testing, Radiography, Magnetic Particle Testing, Eddy-current Testing, Remote Visual Inspection, Laser Testing methods, Infrared Testing, Low Coherence Inteferometry, etc. The areas where NDT is broadly practiced include aeronautics, electrical, civil, system engineering, forensics and various others.

Importance of NDT
Certain sophisticated machines and structures like massive pipelines, bridges, flyovers, concrete structures, etc., because of their huge sizes and complexities inherit few natural risks related to performance and NDT is especially meant for such expensive items as it does not cause any damage to the sample under test.

Advantages of NDT:
  • Controls manufacturing processes
  • Ensure product’s integrity
  • Prevent occurrence of accidents
  • Maintain high class quality and keep the reputation of the manufacturer
Some of the importance Tests we carry out:
  • Carbonation Test
  • Coating Thickness Test
  • Core test
  • Dye Penetration Test
  • Electrical Resistivity Test
  • Ferrite Testing
  • Gamma Radiography using Se-75
  • Half Cell Potential Meter Test
  • Thermography
  • In-situ Metallography
  • Magnetic Particle Test
  • NDT Inspection Services
  • Oxide Layer Thickness measurement
  • Pile Integrity Test
  • Portable Hardness Test
  • Positive Material Identification (PMI) using portable alloy analyzer
  • Radiographic Test (X-Ray and Gamma Rays)
  • Rebar Location/Detection Test
  • Rebound Hammer Test
  • Residual Life Assessment (RLA) of boilers and pressure vessels
  • Thickness Survey
  • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test
  • Weld-ability Study
  • Visual Inspection and Field Services

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Welded Structure Service
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Welded Structure Service

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Spectro serves inspection and consultancy facilities for the welded structures to meet the requirements of their esteemed customers. The testing is carried out at every stage starting from the designing stage to the production stage of a material. The test we conduct can be considered as the only source of Welding Engineering. We offer the best flexibilities to suit the customer’s demand by cost effective methods.

Spectro has a team of skilled and well-experienced personnel to carry out testing on Welded Structures. The list of Tests we carry out is very extensive out of which some are listed below:

Initial Stage Consultancy
  • Distortion Control
  • Welding Process Selection
  • Welding Procedure and Welder Approval
  • Welded Joint Design
  • Material and Welded Structure
Non Destructive Testing
  • Radiography
  • Ultrasonic
Destructive Testing
  • CTOD Test
  • Fracture Test
  • Tensile Test
  • Nick Break Test
  • Micro & Macro Examination
  • Hardness pattern
  • Poisson Ratio
  • Weld Penetration
  • Impact Test
Standard Test Methods
  • ASME
  • IS
  • EN

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RoHS Certification
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RoHS Certification

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Residual Life is that time period during which a material especially an engineering material shall retain the fitness characteristics that are important for its services. Residual Life Assessment studies are generally conducted for aircraft’s components, power plant components and several other machines which are frequently subjected to fatigue and creep loading conditions. For conducting RLA studies, the methods and techniques should be selected carefully. Identification of the failure prone areas and their treatment is very essential for preventing accidents. The equipments which need RLA studies include boilers, piping, pressure vessels, storage tanks, pumps, turbines, compressors, etc.

Significance of RLA Studies:
It is necessary to keep equipments in efficiently operating condition and maximize the life of that equipment. There are different types of components in equipment which require a routine inspection to check their proper working condition. By carrying out inspection, all the information related to the degradation which can affect the service life of that equipment is obtained which will help to provide an early warning to take appropriate actions before facing the failure. After the whole study and past experiences, suitable methodologies can be incorporated to avoid such issues in future which may cause expensive downtime problem.

Conducting RLA Studies:
Before planning to conduct RLA studies, several information regarding the history of a component, its service time period, etc. needs to be collected. Previously, the method that was practiced for RLA studies of expensive equipments was the Visual Inspection but very soon it made a realization that a scientific approach was required for the Residual Life assessment. Besides the other techniques, Non-Destructive Testing techniques are also employed for RLA studies. After all the studies, a correlation between the operational parameters and the results obtained from NDT is drawn which is used to estimate the Residual Life of a particular equipment.

Spectro carries out the determination of in-service degradation of crucial components which works under harsh temperature and pressure conditions leading to corrosion problems. The specially designed software which enables real-time monitoring of the test components is implemented. We are well-adapted to conduct RLA studies and have gained professionalism in this field.

Spectro is accredited by Central Boilers Board and we are a certified Remnant Life Assessment Organization and also a well known Material Testing Laboratory. We provide In-Service Inspection for RLA Studies for ensuring Safety and Integrity of equipments of the Thermal Power Plants, Hydro Power Plants, Petroleum Refineries, etc. to maintain the operating capacity for a longer period of time.

As per Indian Boiler Regulation, the critical components which may get subjected to wear & tear being under high temperature and pressure zone needs examination through Non Destructive Testing (NDT) timely as per the regulations. We own a team of well-specialized experts who are deeply involved in carrying out RLA Studies to ensure better operations.

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Hazardous Substances Testing Service
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Health, Safety and Environment Assessment
Spectro works on the principle of REACH i.e. Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals which was enforced on 1 June 2007 with the main objective to ensure the best protection of health. This is a European Union regulation which is adopted to protect human health and environment from the risks caused by the chemicals used in chemical industries and in our daily lives like paints, cleaning products, electrical appliances, etc. It demands a proof of compliance with the regulations to be followed, that is the reason for its impact on most of the companies. In case the risks are not able to be managed, then the authorities are allowed to restrict the use of those substances which are posing threats to life.

According to REACH, the manufacturers as well as the importers have to generate a data on the substance they deal with and use this data to assess the threats posed by these substances to develop and recommend the suitable risk management measures.

Spectro provides Audit solution that helps to ensure whether the desired protocols are being followed or not. We consolidate the audit results and prepare a performance based report to the customer and supplier. Reach Audit conducted by us performs the following tasks stepwise:
  • Determine REACH-readiness of the supplier
  • Evaluate the methods followed by the supplier for collecting information and storage
  • Allot scores to the suppliers for their performance
Spectro is always ready to offer a supportive hand by:
  • Providing tools to check the presence of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC)
  • Preparing a report for the presence of SVHC
  • Ensuring all the up-to-date information about the chemicals
The testing of Hazardous substances is carried out in following two parts:

Part 1 — Pre-Registration and Responsibilities under which the key details related to products and chemicals, supply chain and sales channel is collected. The concerned responsibilities related to timelines, creating compliance strategy and decision tree are determined after pre-registration.

Part 2 — Compliance and Implementation under which the data related to management of programs and supply chain is collected. Registration summary (Technical Dossiers) and Chemical Safety Reports (CSR) are documented. For preparing Safety Data Sheets, testing of chemicals and substance including toxicology testing, eco-toxicology testing and physico-chemical testing is carried out. Registration with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is mandatory; reports needs to be prepared which must fulfill the requirements of ECHA and the use of SVHCs should be notified.

Testing Spectro conducts a screening test for the presence of SVHCs on the basis of the data collected. Making use of ICP technique, the inorganic salts are screened and through GCMS/MS technique, the organic compounds are detected.

According to recently introduced European Union (EU) legislation, the environmental pollutants are reduced by restricting the upstream sources in products and disposal system. All the business companies under EU needs compliance and face penalty and restrict their imports in required conditions. Similar laws are also proposed in different parts of the world like California Electronic Waste Recycling Act SB20/SB50, Japan and China RoHS.

Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), EU Directive 2002/95/EC strictly restricts the presence of Cr6 , Pb, Cd, PBB, PBDE (Br) and Hg in all the electro-technical products. It has become a driving force for Lead-free manufacturing in the electronics industries.

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Food & Agro Product Testing Service
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The quality of food plays a crucial role which is directly concerned with every individual.
The food quality gets affected by the internal factors like microbial, chemical, physical and external factors like shape, taste, texture, color, size which must be appropriate to get appreciated in terms of health safety issues. Any form of contamination denies the use of that product to maintain safer medical conditions and nutritional requirements. From the last few decades, the ways to characterize food quality has undergone diverse changes. With the rise of economic standards of people in the world, the demand of production of processed food has caused quality testing of the food products.

Various rules and regulations come to force from time to time regarding food quality parameters. The food we get reaches to us through several supply chains which connects different organizations such as manufacturers, transporters, distributors, retailers, etc. The food safety issues can enter the food chain at any stage and at any level thus an adequate quality control measure is needed to be implemented at each step. For this, a third party testing laboratory plays an important role in providing accurate and reliable test results from which the quality of a product can be evaluated. These services are to be used by the industries which relates to food products, research institutes, regulatory authorities, etc.

Spectro Analytical Labs Limited is fully furnished with all the essential equipments which are required for complete testing of broad range of food products (raw and processed both). We also provide services required for new food products in research and development fields. Being accredited by NABL, we follow the guidelines specified under ISO 17025 strictly. The protocols we follow are in accordance with several National and International Standards like IS, PAM, EPA, AOAC, etc. We possess specialized personnel for carrying out the tests as well as operating the most sophisticated instruments which include; ICP-OES, GCMS, GC, LCMS/MS, HPLC, FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometer, AAS, DSC-TGA, Polarimeter and many others.

Spectro is now approved from the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India i.e. FSSAI which is meant for testing the food products that are available in Indian markets. It is a centralized statutory body which specifies standard protocols and regulates their manufacturing to ensure the quality and safety of food to be consumed by humans.

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Cosmetics & Pharmaceutical Testing Service
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Cosmetics are the substances which are used to modify the appearance or aroma of a human body. Cosmetics or beauty products are a mixture of several chemicals which are either derived from nature or they may be synthetically prepared. As per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA the cosmetics are “intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance without affecting the body’s structure or functions.”

Spectro possess a completely self-reliant laboratory, offering a broad range of analytical services for pharmaceutical raw materials as well as the finished products which support many cosmetic industries by working according to different test methods specified in ASTM, ISC, FDA, USP, EPA, BP, etc. We are well equipped with all the essential instruments which have enabled us to provide a wide range of services including testing, consultancy, inspection services and safety assessments. We help the manufacturers, suppliers and retailers by providing those data which is related to the performance and condition of any product.

We offer testing services for the beauty and personal care products that are a part of our everyday life. The samples we accept for testing include creams, shampoos, soaps, detergents, lotions, perfumes, body polishers, cleansers and various others.

The tests we conduct for cosmetics are:
  • Cosmetic Labeling Analysis
  • Durability Testing
  • Microbiological Compatibility Testing
  • Heavy and Toxic Metal Testing
  • Chemical Stability Testing
  • Contaminants Analysis
  • Preservatives Efficacy Analysis
The tests we conduct for Pharmaceutical products include:-
  • Biological Testing
  • Antimicrobial Effectiveness Testing
  • Radio-labeled Product Release Testing
We are expertise in carrying out the tests for Pharmaceutical industries which include:
  • Microbiological Testing
  • Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetic Testing Services
  • Clean Room - Designing, Consultancy, Qualification & Validation
  • Compressed Air Testing

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Water Testing Service
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Water Testing Service

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Water is a synonym for “life” as no life form can exist on earth without it. Although it is the most abundant natural resource, still the quantity of it which is fit for consumption is becoming scarce because of increase in the level of pollution. The quality of water clarifies whether it is suitable for being consumed or not, therefore it needs to be tested before use. The natural mineral water and the packaged drinking water should meet the requirements specified by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

Spectro understands the importance of purity of water for human consumption and industrial works. We offer competitive facilities for testing of drinking water, and waste water. We own a well equipped laboratory which possess the most advanced and modernized instruments required for carrying out a complete analysis for water samples used in batteries, petroleum refineries, fermentation industries, food processing industries, cooling towers, etc. The test protocols are strictly in accordance with the specified Standards mentioned by the concerned authorities.

The test samples with their specified Standards are mentioned below:
  • Drinking water (WHO, EPA and IS:10500-2012)
  • Packaged drinking water (IS:14543-2004)
  • Natural mineral water (IS:13428-2005)
  • Swimming pool water (IS:3328-1993)
  • Water for construction work (IS:4251-1967)
  • Inland surface water (IS:2296-1982)
  • Reagent grade water (IS:1070-1993)
  • Boiler water, feed water, condensate for high pressure boilers (IS:10496-1983)
The parameters that we check in water samples are broadly divided into three categories:
  • Physical parameters
  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  • Temperature
  • Turbidity
  • Color
  • Odor
  • Taste
  • Chemical parameters
  • Acidity and Alkalinity
  • Hardness
  • pH
  • Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
  • Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • Pesticides
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Trichloroethylenes (TCEs) and Trihalomethanes (THMs)
  • Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Nitrites, Nitrates and Cyanides content
  • Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Studies (TCLP)
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Ammoniacal Nitrogen
  • Microbiological Parameters
  • Faecal Coliform
  • Total Coliform
  • Faecal Streptococci
  • E.coli
  • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Salmonella
  • Toxicity Tests(bio assays and LC 50)
  • Total Plate Count
  • Legionella species
  • Vibrio Cholera
  • Enteroviruses

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Environmental Monitoring Service
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With the continuous decrease in quality of environment, it has become essential to keep on monitoring the environment of the sake of health of people. Another requirement of environmental monitoring is to ensure the conformity with various regulations set by the Regulatory Bodies.

Spectro is providing Environmental Monitoring Services and Consultancy Services from past several years. We are a recognized body from Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and various State Pollution Control Boards for carrying out various environmental services with top-class quality. We possess a team of committed and experienced professionals who can provide you a complete peace-of mind by giving you the accurate and reliable results.

We are working for following categories of treatment options:
  • Air Pollution: We all are aware of the consequences and ill-effects of air pollution, thus keeping the environment free from contamination is very essential. The quality of air we breathe is becoming polluted and this requires a regular monitoring to be carried out.
  • Indoor Air Pollution: The purity of air inside houses, offices and buildings is equally important as the air outside. We provide Indoor Air Monitoring services to call centers, hospitals, embassies, industries, etc. We are well equipped with all the required instruments like indoor air samplers and laser air particle counter. We also offer a complete solution for Clean Room Validation services.
  • Water Pollution: The deterioration in water quality is the major cause of several deadly diseases. The toxic waste from industries is discharged into water bodies which seriously affects the aquatic ecosystem. Our services are available for Industries, Municipal Corporation, Potable, Surface and Ground Water Testing which are conducted as per the protocols specified by various Standards like IS, WHO, APHA, BIS, etc.
  • Noise Pollution: Noise is the most prevalent pollutant in this globalized world. Aircrafts, road traffic, huge machineries, etc. are among the most common sources of Noise Pollution. Our major concern is to monitor the noise at different locations or work places with the help of modern data logging type sound level meters. We provide consultancy services to minimize Noise.
  • Soil Pollution: The quality of soil needs to be of high purity as whatever we eat comes from soil. The ultimate source of nutrients, microbes, toxic wastes, etc. is soil, thus it is directly affects our health. We offer a complete solution for Agricultural as well as Non-Agricultural soil samples and also carry out Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
  • Stack Monitoring: Stack being the major point source of air pollution, needs to be taken care of regularly. It includes boiler stacks, large process stacks, generator stacks and industrial stacks. We have a team of experienced personnel and all the necessary instruments like stack kits and portable gas analyzer to provide the facilities for Stack Monitoring and Analysis.

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Paper Testing Service
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Paper Testing Service

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Paper and Packaging Material Testing Services
Spectro offers Testing Services for Paper and Packaging Materials. Our experienced personnel verify the chemical and physical properties of a paper which gives information related to its quality and performance. By making use of our services, you can have a proof to support your activities and safeguard your brand name.

There are different types of paper products which are manufactured as per the required applications. They may range from delicate to tough items, thus their quality needs to be tested before they are brought under use. We have a well-equipped testing laboratory with all the required instruments which are calibrated accurately. Our protocols are according to the specified National and International Standards and the results provided by us are always true and reliable.

Some of the Paper and Packaging Materials tested are:
  • Boxes
  • Bitumen paper
  • Containers for food and pharmaceuticals industry
  • Corrugated fiber board boxes
  • Craft papers
  • Different types of coated paper
  • Paper boards
  • Writing paper
List of Physical Tests we conduct:
  • Bending test/resistance
  • Burst index and Bursting strength
  • Brightness and glossiness
  • Coating thickness
  • Compressibility
  • Density
  • Drops test
  • Edge crush test
  • Elongation
  • Flat crush test
  • Folding endurance
  • Grammage (weight) of paper
  • Moisture content
  • Water absorbency
  • Opacity and porosity
  • Resiliency
  • Ring crush test
  • Short span compression testing
  • Smoothness and roughness
  • Stiffness test
  • Tear factor and tear strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Thickness
  • Vibration test

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Microbiology Testing Service
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Spectro has been providing world-class services to various industries for Microbiology Testing from past several years. We have a renowned name in the market for providing efficient services with accurate results. We ensure that the products are quality wise safe and are manufactured as per the requirements of specified Standards.

Our cutting-edge microbiological testing facilities are available for food and agro products, cosmetics, water, and pharmaceutical products like medical devices, surgical dressing and various other consumable materials. Our experienced personnel carry out tests for a complete range of potentially harmful microorganisms which include various species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Microbiological tests for factory hygiene purposes for air, water and surfaces (swab test) are also carried out by us. By making use of our services, you can be sure about the purity of your products and safeguard your brand name that could help you to build a strong bond with you clients.

The list of products along with the tests is mentioned below:
  • Food products: cereals, dairy products, meat, poultry products, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, sugar, honey, confectionery, oil, food additives, etc. are tested for microbial count, coliform, all pathogens, preservative efficacy, etc.
  • Water: samples from industries, sewage, swimming pool, potable water, drinking water and waste water are tested for coliform, streptococci, E.coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and other pathogens, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, grease content and several other parameters. Endo-toxin testing is also carried out in water samples.
  • Packaged drinking water and packaged natural mineral water are tested as per the protocols specified by IS: 14543 and IS: 13428.
  • Cosmetics products: bacterial count, coliform, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella, preservative efficacy, sterility, efficacy of ethylene oxide, etc.
  • Water filters: purification efficiency of water filters is checked as per IS: 7402 and various other approved methods as well as customer specifications.
  • Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF): microbial count is checked in different ATFs.
  • Antimicrobial activity is checked in plastics, fabrics and electronic devices.
The list of pathogens detected in different samples is given below:
  • E.coli
  • Salmonella
  • S.aureus
  • V.cholerae
  • B.cereus
  • L.monocytogenes
  • Shigella
  • Legionella
  • V.parahaemolyticus
  • F.streptococci
  • P.aeruginosa
  • C.botulinum/perfringens

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Building Material Testing Service
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One of the key ingredients of a growing and successful economy is the Construction industry, as the infrastructure of a country relies heavily on it. The best example of a growing economy is India, where of late there has been a surge of construction activities happening throughout the country involving almost each and every sphere of work. As a result, the Construction industry is poised to become the second largest contributor to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Construction activities can range from building of roads, highways, buildings, towers, dams, etc. Now, the foundation of any construction work hinges on the use of ‘Building Materials’, which include ‘cement, steel, concrete, aggregates, soil, fly ash, ceramics, bricks etc. The quality of such building materials is of paramount importance in ensuring toughness and durability of the constructed part, besides ensuring safety for all those people who would use it. Various regulations, related to such materials, are been enforced from time to time by the government, and every manufacturer has to ensure that the products manufactured are compliant with those regulations.

Since different construction items have different properties and also their applications are varied, a number of national and international specifications pertaining to the scope of application and any relevant regulatory requirements have been formulated. The analyses of building materials have to be conducted as per various accepted standardized test methods. The various standards include IS, ASTM, BIS, ISO etc.

Spectro Analytical Labs Ltd. is one of the top-ranked laboratories providing reliable, accurate, and reproducible test results. Its credibility is bore by the accreditation received from NABL, and also the availability of sophisticated and modern analytical instruments that are calibrated at regular intervals. But the most important strength of Spectro lies in its pool of talented workforce. The testing activities include physical and chemical tests, besides micro-structural analysis. Spectro also undertakes on-field testing services, engineering and NDT inspections, besides providing consultation services.

Our major clients include DMRC, Airport Authority, DDA, EIL, Refineries, NTPC, NHPC, JP, and Gammon.

Major Equipments:
  • Los Angeles Abrasion Machine
  • Aggregate Impact Value Apparatus
  • Blaine Permeability Apparatus
  • Cement Auto Clave
  • Penetrometer
  • Vibration Machine
  • Vicat Apparatus
  • Water Permeability Apparatus
  • CBR Apparatus
  • Compressive Testing Machine
  • Cursing Value Apparatus
  • Surface Abrasion Machine
  • Sedimentation Apparatus
  • Bitumen Extractor
  • Air Content Apparatus
  • Butimen Softing Point Apparatus
  • Ductility Meter
  • Digital Gloss Meter
  • Angle Protector
  • Le Chatelier Flask
  • Liquid Limit Tester

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Paint & Coating Testing Service
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The use of paints, varnishes, and coatings has seen an unprecedented increase in recent decades, courtesy of the technological advances made in the realm of paints and coatings products. The tremendous increase in the use of such products has been due to their widespread applications, from cars, houses, various electrical and electronic items, various infrastructural units, military equipments, to almost every usable item. The materials on which paints and coatings can be applied include metals, plastics, civil materials etc.

The main advantage offered by paints and coatings is the fact that they prolong the useful service life of the items that they are applied on, besides ameliorating the aesthetic appeal of the item. They do so by providing protection to the items against corrosion, abrasion, extreme temperatures, harmful chemicals, moisture, UV rays and all the detrimental conditions that the items are exposed to. Various tests that have been formulated by a number of national and international standards check for the performance characteristics like stability, durability, and resistance to failure tests. Besides, there are a number of noted ‘Environmental Regulations’ related to the composition of such products. For example, paints contain the harmful Volatile organic compounds which have to be tested.

Spectro Analytical Labs Ltd. is very much competent to conduct standardized and customized tests on various types of Paints & Coatings, aided by its well trained staff and the latest equipments at its disposal.

SPECTRO Lab helps answer difficult questions such as:
  • Why is my coatings product losing adhesion?
  • What is causing blisters or bubbles to form in my applied coating?
  • How stain-resistant is my paint product?
Physical testing capabilities of SPECTRO include:
  • Application Properties
  • Liquid Coating Properties
  • Film Appearance
  • Coatings Performance
Performance of Coatings
Many manufacturers have turned to SPECTRO to learn how their products will perform over time and under different environmental conditions. SPECTRO has developed expertise in examining a wide range of Film.

Performance properties including:
  • Hardness
  • Flexibility
  • Adhesion
  • Impact resistance
  • Chemical resistance
  • Corrosion resistance
  • Stain resistance
  • Wash ability Degree of cure
  • Critical Pigment Volume Concentration (CPVC)
Some of the Paint and Protective Coating Tests conducted at SPECTRO
  • All the traditional mechanical and adhesion tests ASTM D638, ASTM D790, ASTM D968, ASTM D2240, ASTM D2794, ASTM D3359, ASTM D3363, ASTM D4060, ASTM D4541:
  • Salt contamination tests
  • Atmospheric and immersion testing for corrosion protection ASTM B117, CCT,CASS and others
  • Unique custom test protocols to determine quality of unusual coatings
  • Failure analysis and root cause determination
  • UV Testing
  • Surface Analysis, FTIR,
  • Electrochemical testing to quantify the protection of various kinds of coatings ,
  • ASTM standard coating/paint tests ASTM D92, ASTM D93, ASTM D523, ASTM D562, ASTM
  • D1200, ASTM D1210, ASTM D1475, ASTM D1640, ASTM D1653, ASTM D1849, ASTM D2244,
  • ASTM D2369, ASTM D2371, ASTM D2486, ASTM D2697, ASTM D2805, ASTM D3723, ASTM D4400
  • Failure analysis of coatings

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Coal Testing Service
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Coal Testing Service

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Coal is one of the primary sources of electricity in India and abroad. It is a non-renewable source of energy. The major contribution towards our country’s energy/power requirements comes from combustion of Coal. A substantial quantity of coal has also to be imported from other countries, in order to fulfill the ever-increasing energy demands of our country. Other important uses of coal include manufacturing of Steel, Cement, fertilizers, paper, ceramics, and other industrial items. Coal also finds use as a liquid fuel and as a fuel for domestic/household consumption. Coke is generally formed by destructive distillation of coal, has a higher Carbon content, and it finds use mainly in Steel manufacturing in blast furnaces.

Although there are other sources of energy like petroleum and natural gas, the advantage that Coal offers relative to them is its ease of combustion and the high calorific/heat value associated with it. Coal occurs in four main types or ranks: Lignite or brown coal, bituminous or black coal, anthracite and graphite. These ranks are a result of the geological process that has occurred over time, and they have different physical and chemical properties which can be verified by proper testing techniques.

Importance of Coal Testing
The results of Coal testing are utilized mainly for characterization, commercial grading or assigning ranks, and deciding the utilization for different purposes. There are basically two types of analysis conducted on coal: one is the ‘Proximate Analysis’ and the other is ‘Ultimate Analysis’. These tests determine different parameters, and the results from Proximate Analysis determine the rank of Coal and some important indicators related to the commercial value of coal, like heating/Calorific value and application in boilers.
Spectro Analytical Labs Ltd. conducts testing of Coal, Coke and other fuels as per various national and international standards in the most scrupulous manner ensuring flawless accuracy in the test results.

Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
  • Calorific value (Gross/net)
  • Proximate analysis - Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon
  • Ultimate analysis - C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
  • Ash analysis - Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
  • Ash Fusion Temperature
  • Coke Reactivity
  • Hard-grove Grindability Index
  • Porosity
  • Density
  • Angle of Repose
  • Reflectivity
  • Crucible Swelling Index/Free Swelling Index
Major Equipments Used
  • Bomb Calorimeter
  • Carbon & Hydrogen determination apparatus
  • Proximate Analyzer
  • Ash Fusion Temperature apparatus/Ash Fusion Tester

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Minerals & Ores Testing Service
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A Mineral is a naturally occurring substance found under the earth’s crust, which has been formed as a result of various Geological processes occurring over substantial periods of time. It would not be wrong to mention that almost each & every utility or commercial substance in the contemporary world has been produced from a particular Mineral or a combination of various Minerals. Nothing can be conceived without Minerals. They constitute the backbone of any nation, since the Economic, Infrastructural & Industrial growth, besides the all-important National Security, of a country depends on its reserves of Minerals & the technology to extract & utilize them.

Minerals and Some of their Uses
Minerals have distinct & characteristic Physical & Chemical properties, & are the primary sources of all the naturally occurring Metals on earth. Minerals can be either Metallic or Non-Metallic, depending upon their compositions. A Mineral may consist of either only one Metal or a number of different Metals. The Study of Minerals is called ‘Mineralogy’. The important ‘General Characteristics’ of any Mineral are as follows:
  • Natural Occurrence, i.e., not produced ‘Artificially’ or ‘Man-made’
  • Constituent of Rocks
  • Inorganic Composition & Usually
  • Abiogenic Origin, i.e., not produced from any living organism like plants & animals
  • Physical State – Solid; Stable at normal temperature ranges of the earth’s surface
  • Fixed (or narrowly variable) Chemical
  • Composition; Either a Pure Element, or Chemical Compound, or a mixture of Chemical Compounds
  • Orderly Crystalline Structure
There are over 4000 Minerals known to mineralogists, who have identified & characterized them based on their Physical & Chemical properties. Some common examples of Minerals are Limestone, Quartzite, Feldspars, Micas, Haematite, Gypsum, Gold, Asbestos, various kinds of gems etc.

Some of the Ores & Minerals Tested by Spectro:
Iron oresMaganese OresAsbestos
HaematiteMaganite, BrauniteChrysolite(White Asbestos)
MagnetitePyrolusiteCrocidolite (Blue Asbestos)
Building StonesCement Raw materialsRefractory
SandstoneMineral PigmentsAbrasive materials
TalcChromiteEmery Grains
SlateAluminum OresCeramic Materials
SillimaniteBauxiteKaolin (China Clay)
Molybednum OresCopper OresBall Clay
MolybdniteMalachiteFire Clay
Magnesium OresZirconium OresLead Ores
Zinc OresZirconoliteCerussite
Sphalerite, SmithsoniteZircophylliteAnglesite

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Soil Testing Service
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Soil Testing Service

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Soil is a complex and non-homogeneous natural substance formed over long periods of time due to various geological events and other natural processes. Its complexity is demonstrated by its approximate composition which includes minerals (45 %), air (25 %), water (25 %), & organic matter (5 %). There are various types of soil which differ in physical & chemical compositions, like sand, silt, clay, loam, peat etc. Although the primary use of soil in our nature is to support plants or vegetation, but for all construction related activities like buildings, dams, tunnels, etc. soil is an indispensable ingredient and knowledge of its properties determine its suitability for a particular purpose. The various tests on soil can be broadly categorized into two types:

Classification Tests, which provide information about the general soil characteristics as well as the mechanical properties like strength, size-grading, permeability etc. These tests help to classify soil samples into various different types.

Tests To Determine Engineering Properties, which evaluate the usefulness or suitability of a particular soil specimen for a construction related work.

Besides the above types of tests, other tests are also conducted to determine various other parameters which help in deciphering its internal structures, contamination, and other aspects. These include various chemical tests and corrosion tests.

Soil Investigation Studies

‘Boring’ is done as per IS: 1892, making use of mechanically operated equipments. Boreholes of nominal diameter 150mm minimum will be sunk employing shell and auger equipment or any other duly approved method or technique. The size of the drill holes will be normally NX (73mm), but may be reduced to BX (60mm) depending on soil surface layers or strata conditions.
Drilling in rock and collection of rock core samples are done in accordance with IS: 6962, IS: 4464 and IS: 10208. The observations for Core drilling are undertaken in accordance with IS: 5313.
Boreholes are taken down to a layer at which N value is greater than 50. However, if hard rock is encountered on a continuing basis during the process of boring, drilling is continued for a depth of one meter into hard rock before terminating the boring process.

Standard Penetration Test
‘Standard penetration test’ is an in situ test done to evaluate the engineering properties of sub-surface soil strata. It is a common, simple, and inexpensive test conducted to determine the shear strength parameters and the relative densities of soils. The tests are generally carried out at intervals of 1.5 meters or at every change of strata, whichever is met earlier. The tests are conducted by following IS: 2131. The intervals of penetration are increased to 3m if in between vane shear or cone penetration test is performed.

Trial Pits Testing

In situ California Bearing

Trial pits are done as per IS: 4453 and IS: 1892 by open excavations in order to collect samples and determine the nature and characteristics of soil.

The base of pit has a size of 1.5 mx1.5 m (minimum) and 4.0 m depth for all types of soils. After completion of all the tests the trial pits are backfilled and compacted as per the requirements of the client.

Ratio Tests
In-situ tests are conducted to determine the CBR values of existing materials at different locations along the proposed road alignment, as per different clauses of IS: 2720 (part 31). The tentative locations of CBR tests are indicated in the ‘Drawing Results’ of the tests; in addition the suitable recommendations need to be included in the investigation report as well.

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Petroleum Products Testing Service
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Petroleum, which literally means “Rock Oil” or “Oil from the Earth”, was formed from the remains of plants & animals that lived millions of years ago (Pre-Dinosaur age) in a marine environment. Subsequent decomposition of those remains (over millions of years) by application of heat & pressure (due to burial) by deposition of sand & silt over them led to the formation of “Crude Oil” or Petroleum. It is one of the 3 Fossil fuels, viz., Coal, Natural Gas, Petroleum, that occur in our nature, & is composed of a complex mixture of different types of hydrocarbons along-with a number of elemental impurities, like Sulfur, Nitrogen, Oxygen, etc. Due to wide variations in the origin of Petroleum products, they vary considerably in terms of their Physico-Chemical properties & appearances, from one Oilfield to other.

The separation of Crude Petroleum into its various individual fractions (called ‘Petroleum Products’), like Petrol, Diesel, & Naphtha, take place in a ‘Petroleum Refinery’ by a process called ‘Refining’, which consists of 3 steps: (1) Separation (2) Conversion & (3) Purification. There are 4 major types of Petroleum fractions, depending upon their Chemical Bonding patterns:

(1) Paraffins (2) Olefins (3) Naphthenes & (4) Aromatics

Depending upon their usage, Petroleum Products can be broadly divided into 2 types, ‘Fuel Oil’ & ‘Lubricants’. Characterization of these products in terms of a number of Physico-Chemical properties, like Viscosity, Octane number, Cetane number, Distillation range, is of utmost importance in determining the suitability of a particular Petroleum Product for the purpose of its intended use, transportation, storage, & other functions.

Spectro Analytical Labs Ltd. has been serving its elite group of customers (in the Petroleum & Allied Industries) for well over a decade, by providing reliable & meaningful test results. It can also conduct customized tests, depending upon a client’s specific needs. Spectro’s credibility lies in its strict adherence to Quality Control Procedures (as per ISO 17025:2005), & its team of efficient & well-trained technicians/analysts who are well-equipped with the most sophisticated & versatile analytical instruments, to test a wide variety of Petroleum Products.

Some of the Petroleum Products tested by Spectro are as follows:
  • Solid Fuels – Coal, Coke, Wood
  • Diesel – High Speed Diesel (HSD), Low Diesel Oil (LDO), Bio-diesel
  • Insulating Oils – Transformer Oil, Mineral Inhibiting Oil
  • Lubricating Oils – Lubricating Grease, Engine Oil, Gear Oil, Spindle Oil, Turpentine Oil, Brake
  • Hydraulic Fluids – Hydraulic Oil, Anti-wear Hydraulic Oil, Fire Resistant Oil
  • Carbon-Rich Materials – Activated Carbon, Graphite
  • Metal Lube Oil – Cutting Oil, Quenching Oil, Turbine Oil
  • Furnace Oils
Major Equipments used for Testing:
  • Automatic Bomb Calorimeter (Innovated by Spectro)
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)
  • Gas Chromatograph – Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)
  • Gas Chromatograph (FID & ECD Detectors)
  • Gas Chromatograph (FID & ECD Detectors)
  • Proximate Analyzer
  • Ash Fusion Tester
  • Karl Fischer Titrator
  • Aniline Point Apparatus
  • Flash Point Apparatus (Abel)

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Mechanical Testing Service
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Spectro offers an excellent platform for wide range of Mechanical Testing services. We possess a high-class machine workshop for preparing precise test specimens which is the most crucial step and directly affects the ultimate evaluation of results of several mechanical properties. The test specimens are prepared for metallic and non-metallic materials as per the relevant protocols set by various National and International Standard like IS, BS and ASTM.

The mechanical properties of a material are reflection of their response towards the external forces. To know the performance potential of any material whether it is a raw material or a finished product, it is important to measure their mechanical properties. These properties contribute towards the performance of the material under specified environmental conditions and provide a guidance to make choice as per the requirements. It also tells about the inherited flaws in the designed material.

Spectro is well equipped with all the Mechanical Testing Facilities to provide reproducible, reliable and precise determination of various tests including compressive strength, impact test, tensile strength, bend or re-bend test, hardness tests, weld-ability, flattening test and various other mechanical properties.

Major Equipments we possess:
  • Charpy Impact Tester - ASTM
  • Profile Projector
  • Hardness Rockwell, Vickers and Brinell (HBW)
  • Torsion Testing Machine
  • Erischen Cupping Test
  • Servo Hydraulic Automatic UTM (50 and 100 tonnes)
  • Broaching Type Notch Cutter
  • Surface Roughness Tester
  • Portable Hardness tester
  • Coating Thickness Tester
  • Micro Hardness Tester(10 to 1000 g)
  • Compression Testing Machine(300tonnes)
  • Computerized UTM (50 and 100 tonnes)
Mechanical Tests we conduct:
  • Micro Hardness Test
  • Crescent, Flattening, Drift, Expanding and Bend Test on Tubes
  • Tension Tests on products
  • Vickers Hardness Test
  • Rockwell Hardness Test
  • Shear Strength Test
  • Brinell Hardness Test
  • Tensile, Yield Stress/0.2% Proof Stress, Elongation, Reduction in area and Crushing Test
  • Charpy Impact Test-ASTM upto -196°C
  • Bend Test,  Re-bend Test and Pull- out Test on reinforcement bar
  • Relaxation Test on HTS wire

The results obtained are used for two purposes either for quality control or engineering design and development or construction. We feel proud to be specialized in Proof Stress Test and Tensile Test at elevated temperature.

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Metals & Alloys Testing Services
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Spectro provides an outstanding platform for carrying out tests of almost all the recognized elements of the periodic table. Whether the sample is a metal or a non metal or an alloy, we are fully equipped with all the instruments required for its quantitative as well as qualitative analysis. We practice traditional techniques like Wet Chemical Methods and also the instrumentation techniques for studying the prescribed parameters.

Our laboratory is well furnished with most reliable and modernized instruments like Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Spark OES. These sophisticated instruments offer multi-element analysis and are highly sensitive. We feel proud to introduce ourselves as the first commercial laboratory in India which started the use of Spark Optical Emission Spectroscopy (Spark OES) technique for analyzing the known metals in solidified form. Undoubtedly, we possess the highest proficiency in the whole country to investigate any ferrous, non-ferrous or precious metals.

Spark OES works on a reliable and very powerful technology thus it is the most widely adopted technique in the field of analysis of metals and alloys in solid form. The reason behind its popularity is fast speed, high accuracy, efficiency and precision. It is admirable to use because it does not require any sample dissolution, moreover it provides extremely high sample analysis output i.e. it can analyze 400 to 500 samples in a day.

In order to attain reliable and repeatable results through Spark OES, it is desirable to have significant quantities of the reference material or the sample which covers a broad range of concentrations needed to calibrate the instrument. Spectro owns an extensive range of Certified Reference Materials (CRM) to cover the full spectrum of metals.

The samples which are not susceptible to be analyzed through Spark OES for their elemental composition are analyzed through XRF or ICP-OES. The XRF instrument is used to analyze elements from Sodium to Uranium mentioned in the periodic table whereas, the ICP instrument is used to analyze all the samples that can be analyzed by XRF as well as those elements also which could not be possibly analyzed by other mentioned techniques. All these techniques have provided opportunities to analyze all the rare and precious metals. It is now possible to detect the toxic elements like Hg, Pb, Cd and total Cr in various samples like rubber, plastic, etc. and we can check their compliance with related National and International regulatory authorities.

Available Equipments:
  • Spectrometer (OES)-Spectro Max
  • Spectrometer (OES)-Metallab/GNR/Polyvac
  • Spectrometer (XRF-WD)-Rigaku
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS)-GBC
  • UV-Vis Spectrophotometer-Thermo Electron Corp
  • ICP Simultaneous Spectrometer-Varian
  • Portable Spectrometer XRF-X MET-Oxford
  • Portable Spectrometer Arc Met-920-Oxford
  • Scanning Electron Microscope- Hitachi

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Wood Testing Service
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Wood Testing Service

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Wood, being a valuable raw material is used to make furniture, packaging materials and is also widely used in construction. Spectro ensures whether the quality of these products conforms to the specified National, International or European Standards.

Physical & Mechanical tests for Wood
  • Stability Test
  • Drop Test
  • Impact Test
  • Lock Test
  • Latch Test
  • Load Test
  • Compression Test
  • Flammability Test
  • Surface soundness
  • Modulus of Rupture
  • Construction Quality
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Load Endurance Test
  • Internal Bond Strength
Chemical Tests
  • Leachable Lead & Cadmium
  • VOC Emission
  • Formaldehyde
  • Azo Dyes
  • Heavy Metals
  • Nickel Release
  • Phthalates
Floors & Floor coverings made up of wood and wood-based materials.
  • Type and quality of wood,
  • Resistance to indentation.
  • Environmental Protection and Safety Testing
  • Wood Preservation and Conservation Testing
Fire Tests for Furniture
  • ASTM E1352/ ASTM E1353 and NFPA 260/ NFPA 261
  • Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
  • ASTM E1474/ ASTM F1550
  • Heat Release Rate Measurement using Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
  • ASTM E1537
  • Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture

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Refractories & Insulation Test Service
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Properties and Testing of Refractory materials
Refractory materials are basically inorganic non-metallic substances which are composed of thermally stable mineral aggregates, a binder phase, and additives. Refractory substances are supposed to be able to withstand the varying degrees of severity in terms of exposure to abrasive and corrosive solids, liquids, or gases at extremely high temperatures. The principal raw materials used in the production of refractories are: Oxides of silicon, aluminium, magnesium, calcium and zirconium, and some non-oxide compounds of carbides, nitrides, borides, silicates and graphite. There are a number of different types of refractory materials, in terms of physico-chemical composition and designs, which are manufactured depending upon the operating service conditions.

The general desirable characteristics of refractory materials are as follows:
  • Able to withstand high & sudden change of temperatures.
  • Able to withstand action of molten metal slag, glass, and hot gases.
  • Able to withstand mechanical stress/load and abrasive environments at high temperatures.
  • Able to prevent or minimize loss of heat from furnaces or reaction chambers.
  • Should have low coefficient of thermal expansion.
  • Should be able to maintain chemical integrity and not contaminate substances.

Insulating materials
Insulating materials are primarily used with the purpose of preventing heat loss or gain in the application areas, like manufacturing structures and heating chambers. They should possess low thermal conductivity and their heat capacities depend on their bulk densities and specific heats. They are generally porous, containing a large number of dormant air cells. Insulating materials can be classified into two broad categories: Organic and Inorganic materials. The organic foams include polystyrene, polyurethane, phenol foam, polyethylene foam etc. The inorganic ones include mineral wool, calcium silicate, cellular glass, micro porous silica, magnesia, ceramic fibre, vermiculite and pearlite.

Types of refractory
Classification based on Chemical Composition

This classification is based on the behaviour, i.e. chemical reaction of refractory materials towards slag. Three types are recognized:

Acidic refractories
These types of refractories are attacked by basic slags (alkalies), and are stable to acidic ones. Hence, these are used in those places where the atmosphere and slag composition are acidic. Examples include Silica (SiO2), Zirconia (ZrO2), etc.

Basic refractories
These refractories are attacked by acidic slags, and are stable to alkaline slags, dusts and fumes at higher temperatures. Thus, they find use in places, like furnace linings, where the slags and atmospheric conditions are basic. In terms of chemical composition, they mainly include Magnesia (MgO), Dolomite (CaOMgO), and Chromite (main part of chrome ore).

Neutral refractories
These are chemically stable to both acidic and basic slags, hence are used in areas where the slag and atmospheric conditions are either acidic or basic. Some of the common neutral refractories are Carbon graphite (most inert), Chromites (Cr2O3), & Alumina (Al2O3). Graphite is extensively used in metallurgical furnaces for controlling the process of oxidation, since it is extremely stable and inert.

Classification Based on Physical Form
Based on their physical forms, refractories can be classified into ‘Shaped’ and ‘Unshaped’ refractories. The former is commonly referred to as refractory bricks and the latter as “monolithic” refractories.

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Ferrography Testing Service
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Ferrography involves separation of solid particles from the oils and examine them under a microscope for checking the characteristics like particle size, composition, concentration, morphology and surface condition of ferrous as well as non-ferrous wear particles. The total number of particles in unit volume of oil sample is assumed as Wear Particle Concentration (WPC). It is always better to monitor the particles being generated within the oil which gets mixed up from the machine components or environment. It helps to detect the critical stage which may lead to component failure.

Spectro provide services for Ferrography testing of oils which are used in machines and equipments. It enhances the life of equipments by providing an early warning related to failure or damage. These days, Analytical Ferrography has become one of the most powerful techniques to analyze various oil samples. Although the test protocols are lengthy and demands skilled personnel, yet the technique gives excellent return. This technique provides examination at micro level and analyzing the debris present in lubricating oils. These particles may be metallic or non-metallic in nature. By employing Ferrographic Technology, we can extract, classify and visualize the size, shape and number of particles present.

This technique can also be called as Wear Particle Analysis, Wear Debris Analysis or Machine Condition Monitoring. It comprise of both, qualitative as well as quantitative studies.

Analysis of Toxic elements/Heavy metals in Food
After the complete analysis of oil sample, we provide a comprehensive diagnosis report by an email along with a hard copy. It includes a complete interpretation and colored picture of wear particles taken from microscope.

Available test methods:
  • D-6304 Water content
  • D-5185 Wear metals in used oil
  • D-7690 Analytical Ferrography
  • D-3278 Flash point
  • D-2982 Anti-freeze detection
  • D-2896 Base number
  • D-1401 Demulsifier
  • D-892 Foam test
  • D-445 Viscosity
Lubricating oil test include:
  • Acidity: Acid number of petroleum products by potentiometric titration
  • Anti-freeze: Detection of Glycol-based Anti-freeze
  • Caustics: Base number of petroleum products by potentiometric perchloric acid titration
  • Ferrography: Preventive maintenance test based on wear particle analysis
Advantages of Ferrography Testing:
  • Predicts the condition of lubricants
  • Prevents machine breakdown, thereby saving money
  • Provides correct detail about oil condition and gives tremendous results
  • Prevents the occurrence of accidents
  • Protect equipments
  • Extends the life of components
The components whose Ferrography Testing is carried out:
  • Gear systems
  • Compressor systems
  • Bearing systems
  • All types of engines
  • Hydraulic systems
  • Pumps
  • Turbines
  • Aircrafts
  • Agitators

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