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A demineralization plant consists of two pressure vessels containing cation and anion exchange resins. Various types of ion exchange resins can be used for both the cation and anion process depending on the type of impurities in the water and what the final water is used for. Typically, the cation resin operates in the hydrogen cycle. The cations in the water then passes through the anion exchange resin where the anions (i.e. chloride, sulphate, nitrate, and bicarbonate) are chemically exchanged for hydroxide ions.
The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which is the chemical composition of pure water.
The simplified demineralization plant consists of:
The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which is the chemical composition of pure water.What is demineralised water used for?
The high-purity water from a demineralised plant is typically used for high pressure boiler feed, wash water for computer chip manufacture, pharmaceutical process water, micro-electronics and any process where high-purity water is a requirement.Why are there numerous types of resins used in demineralization plants?
- The type of resins employed and selected depends on numerous factors:
- Treated water quality required
- Input water quality
- Presence of organic foulants
- Flow through plant required
- Regeneration method –either counter-current or co-current regeneration
There is a vast range of resins to select from, e.g. purafine resins, enhanced capacity resins, gel polystyrene resins, potable clear gel resins, resins for water containing organic matter, resins to achieve low silica levels.What is mixed-bed demineralization?
Polishing mixed beds come after the cation and anion standard vessels and, as the name implies, they are there to polish the water. The bed is an intimate mix of anion and cation resins. These resins are not regenerated at a pre-set time according to conductivity and are not operated to exhaustion but are regenerated on time and volume.What is the quality of the treated water from a demineralization plant?
The quality of the water depends on the type of scheme used :Cation-Anion-polishing Mixed Bed :-
With this configuration, this type of plant should produce water of the following quality:
- Conductivity 0.1 µS/cm at 25°C
- Sodium 0.01 mg/ld
- Reactive silica 0.02 mg/lCation-Anion (Co-Current Regeneration):-
With typical co-current regeneration, the outlet quality will depend on the regenerant applied, resin employed and raw water quality:
- Conductivity 5 to 30 µS/cm at 25°C
- Sodium 0.5 to 3 mg/l
- Reactive silica 0.1 to 0.3 mg/l
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