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Tamara Hospital

Bengaluru, Karnataka

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Gynecology

Pioneers in the industry, we offer Menopause Treatment Service, Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding, Uro Gynecology Consultants, Laparoscopy, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Hysteroscopy from India.

Menopause Treatment Service
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Menopause is a normal part of life of a woman, just like puberty. It is the time when a woman reaches her last period, but symptoms can begin several years earlier. Some symptoms of menopause can last for months or years after and this is due to the changing levels of estrogen and progesterone, which are two female hormones made in your ovaries.
This time of change is called perimenopause. It can begin several years before your last menstrual period. Perimenopause lasts for 1 year after your last period. After a full year without a period, you can say you have been "through menopause." Postmenopause follows menopause and lasts the rest of your life.
The average age of a woman having her last period, menopause, is 51. But, some women have their last period in their forties, and some have it later in their fifties. Smoking can lead to early menopause. So can some types of operations like a surgery to remove your uterus (called a hysterectomy) will make your periods stop, and that's menopause. But you might not have menopause symptoms like hot flashes right then because if your ovaries are untouched, they still make hormones. In time, when your ovaries start to make less estrogen, menopause symptoms could start. But, sometimes both ovaries are removed (called an oophorectomy), usually along with your uterus. That's menopause too. In this case, menopause symptoms can start right away, no matter what age you are, because your body has lost its main supply of estrogen.
What Are the Signs of Menopause?
Women may have different signs or symptoms at menopause. That's because estrogen is used by many parts of your body. So, as you have less estrogen, you could have various symptoms. Here are the most common changes you might notice at midlife. Some may be part of aging rather than menopause..
  • Change in your period. This might be what you notice first. Your periods may no longer be regular. They may be shorter or last longer. You might bleed less than usual or more. These are all normal changes, but to make sure there isn't a problem, see your doctor if:
  • Your periods come very close together
  • You have heavy bleeding
  • You have spotting
  • Your periods last more than a week

  • Hot flashes.Many women have hot flashes around the time of menopause. They may be related to changing estrogen levels. Hot flashes may last a few years after menopause. A hot flash is a sudden feeling of heat in the upper part or all of your body. Your face and neck become flushed. Red blotches may appear on your chest, back, and arms. Heavy sweating and cold shivering can follow. Flashes can be very mild or strong enough to wake you from your sleep. Most hot flashes last between 30 seconds and 10 minutes.
  • Problems with your vagina and bladder.

    Changing estrogen levels can cause your genital area to get drier and thinner. This could make sexual uncomfortable. Or, you could have more vaginal or urinary infections. Some women find it hard to hold their urine long enough to get to the bathroom. Sometimes urine leaks during exercise, sneezing, coughing, laughing, or running.

  • Sleep.Around midlife, some women start having trouble getting a good night's sleep. Maybe you can't fall asleep easily, or you wake too early. Night sweats might wake you up. You might have trouble falling back to sleep if you wake during the night
  • Sex. You may find that your feelings about sex are changing. You could be less interested. Or, you could feel freer and sexier after menopause. After 1 full year without a period, you can no longer become pregnant.
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    Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
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    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is usually caused by abnormal changes in hormone levels. In some cases the cause of the bleeding is not known.
    Under normal circumstances one of the ovaries releases an egg during the menstrual cycle, this process is called ovulation. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is often triggered when women do not ovulate. 
    This causes abnormal changes in hormone levels and in some cases it can lead to unexpected bleeding.
    Symptoms

    Symptoms of dysfunctional uterine bleeding may include:

  • The time between each periods changes each month.
  • Spotting or Bleeding from the between periods.
  • If the periods occur less than 28 days apart or more than 35 days apart.
  • Heavier bleeding (such as needing to change protection during the night, passing large clots, soaking through a sanitary pad every hour for 2 - 3 hours in a row).
  • Bleeding lasts for more days than normal or for more than 7 days.
  • Treatment

    Young women within a few years of their first period are often not treated unless symptoms are very severe, such as heavy blood loss causing anemia.
    In other women, the goal of treatment is to control the menstrual cycle. Treatment may include:

    or taken just before the period starts.
  • Birth control pills or progesterone only pills.
  • Intrauterine device (IUD) that releases the hormone progestin.
  • The doctor may also recommend iron supplements for women with anemia.
  • If you want to get pregnant, you may be given medication to stimulate ovulation.
    Women with severe symptoms that do not get better with other treatments may consider the following procedures if they no longer want to have children:
  • Endometrial ablation or resection to destroy or remove the lining of the uterus
  • Hysterectomy to remove the uterus
  • D and C to remove polyps and diagnose certain conditions.
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    Uro Gynecology Consultants
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    Urogynecology is dedicated to the treatment of women with pelvic floor disorders such as urinary or fecal incontinence and prolapse (bulging or falling) of the , bladder and/or the uterus.
    Urinary incontinence

    Urinary incontinence (leakage of urine) is a very common condition affecting at least 10-20% of women under age 65 and up to 56% of women over the age of 65. While incontinence also affects men, it occurs much more commonly in women.
    Prolapse 

    Prolapse simply means displacement from the normal position. When this word is used to describe the female organs, it usually means bulging, sagging or falling. It can occur quickly, but usually happens over the course of many years.
    Prolapse and incontinence

    Prolapse and incontinence frequently occur together. Both conditions are believed to result from damage to the pelvic floor after delivering a baby. Other possible factors in the development of prolapse and incontinence are very heavy lifting on a daily basis, chronic coughing, severe constipation and obesity.
    TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR PROLAPSE

  • Pelvic muscle exercises (PME)

    This exercise strengthens the support of the pelvic organs, and are most commonly used to treat stress urinary incontinence. PME techniques are also useful in prolapse prevention. Once the symptoms of prolapse are severe, however, these exercises are of little benefit.

  • Pessary

    It is a device worn in the like a diaphragm. Pessaries are used to support the , bladder, rectum and uterus as necessary. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so a doctor or nurse must fit them.

  • Surgery

    There are a number of surgical procedures to correct prolapse like Total Hysterectomy, Uterosacral ligament suspension etc.. the choice of operation depends on several factors. For more information on this contact your gynecologist

  • TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR URINARY INCONTINENCE
  • Pelvic Muscle Exercises (PME)

    PME techniques are an effective treatment option for stress incontinence. Most women require guidance from a medical professional to learn how to contract the pelvic floor muscles correctly. For specific instructions on how to do these exercises contact your doctor.

  • Bladder Training

    This treatment for urge incontinence involves teaching a patient to urinate according to a timetable rather than an urge to do so. Gradually, the scheduled time between trips to the bathroom is increased as the patient's bladder control improves. For specific instructions contact your doctor.

  • The Bladder Diet

    This is a list of dietary irritants to the bladder. Avoiding the items on this list can greatly improve such bladder symptoms as frequency and urgency. To know more on the exact diet details contact your doctor.

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    Laparoscopy
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    Laparoscopy

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    The word “laparoscopy” simply means visual examination of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is tiny telescope like instrument inserted into the abdomen through the navel to view the interior of the peritoneal cavity.
    The advantages of laparoscopic surgery –
  • Greater precision because of the magnification of the operative field.
  • Diminished blood loss.
  • Tiny incisions rather than opening the entire abdomen.
  • Less post-operative pain and discomfort.
  • Fewer complications.
  • Shorter hospital stay.
  • Quicker recovery time.
  • Generally, the patient is discharged within 23 hours of surgery and is able to resume light ton normal duties after one week.

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    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
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    What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman's pelvic organs. The pelvic organs include the uterus (womb), fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix.
    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) means the infection or inflammation of upper genital tract i.e. the ovary, the fallopian tubes and the uterus. It is generally seen in young sexually active females.
    What causes pelvic inflammatory disease?

    A woman can get PID when bacteria moves up through her vagina and infects her pelvic organs. Many different types of bacteria can cause PID. But, most of the time PID are caused by bacteria that cause 2 common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) — gonorrhea and chlamydia. It can take from a few days to a few months for an infection to travel up from the vagina to the pelvic organs.
    You can get pelvic inflammatory disease without having an STI. Normal bacteria found in the vagina and on the cervix can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease.
    What are the signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease?

    Many women don't know they have PID because they don't have any symptoms. For women who have them, symptoms can range from mild to severe. The most common symptom of PID is pain in your lower abdomen (stomach area). Other symptoms include:

  • Irregular periods (monthly bleeding)
  • Painful urination
  • Fever
  • Vaginal discharge that may smell foul
  • Painful sex
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen
  • Can pelvic inflammatory disease cause infertility?

    Themore times you have pelvic inflammatory disease, the more likely it is that you won't be able to get pregnant. When you have pelvic inflammatory disease, bacteria infect the tubes or cause inflammation of the tubes. This turns normal tissue into scar tissue. Scar tissue can block your tubes and make it harder to get pregnant. Even having just a little scar tissue can keep you from getting pregnant without infertility treatment.
    How is pelvic inflammatory disease treated?

    PID can be cured with antibiotics. Most of the time, at least two antibiotics are used that work against a wide range of bacteria. Your doctor will work with you to find the best treatment for you. You must take all your medicine, even if your symptoms go away. This helps to make sure your infection is fully cured. You should see your doctor again 2 to 3 days after starting treatment to make sure the antibiotics are working.
    Without treatment, PID can lead to severe problems like infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.
    Any damage done to your pelvic organs before you start treatment likely cannot be undone. Still, don't put off getting treatment. If you do, you may not be able to have children. If you think you may have PID, see a doctor right away.

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    Hysteroscopy
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    Hysteroscopy

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    Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to look inside your uterus in order to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding.
    Hysteroscopy is done using a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus.
    Hysteroscopy can be either diagnostic or operative.
    It is performed during the following uterine conditions:
  • Polyps and fibroids —Hysteroscopy is used to remove these non-cancerous growths found in the uterus.
  • Adhesions —Also known as Asherman’s Syndrome, uterine adhesions are bands of scar tissue that can form in the uterus and may lead to changes in menstrual flow as well as infertility. Hysteroscopy can help your doctor locate and remove the adhesions.
  • Septum’s— Hysteroscopy can help determine whether you have a uterine septum, a malformation of the uterus that is present from birth.
  • Abnormal bleeding— Hysteroscopy can help identify the cause of heavy or lengthy menstrual flow, as well as bleeding between periods or after menopause.
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    olycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman’s hormones go out of balance and may cause some changes in your looks such as unwanted hair growth and acne. It can cause problems with the periods and hence lead to Infertility. If it is not treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, such as diabetes and heart disease. PCOS is common, affecting as many as 1 out of 10 women.
    PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility in women. Approximately five to ten percent of women of childbearing age have PCOS. Most women with PCOS don’t even know that they have it. Most women do not get a diagnosis until they begin trying to get pregnant. Some of the symptoms of PCOS may be overlooked until a woman starts trying to conceive a baby.
    What are the symptoms?
    The most common symptoms are:
  • Thinning hair on the scalp.
  • Acne.
  • Depression.
  • Weight gain and trouble losing weight.
  • Extra hair on the face and body. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair and more hair on the chest, belly, and back.
  • Irregular periods. Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods. Others have very heavy bleeding.
  • Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have trouble getting pregnant (infertility).
  • Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. That is why it is called polycystic ovary syndrome. The cysts are not harmful but lead to hormone imbalances.
    What happens during PCOS?
    In PCOS the hormones get out of balance. Normally the ovaries make a tiny amount of male hormones called androgens. In PCOS, they start making slightly more androgens. This may cause you to stop ovulating, get acne, and grow extra facial and body hair.
    Insulin Resistance is another root cause of PCOS, which prevents the efficient conversion of food into energy because the membranes of your cells have become de-sensitized to insulin. This causes glucose and insulin levels in your bloodstream to become unbalanced, leading to an increase in free-floating glucose, which is sent to your liver and converted to excess body fat. As a result, you may suffer from weight gain and obesity which in turn can lead not only to PCOS but also to other serious health conditions like Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes.
    What causes PCOS?
    The symptoms of PCOS are caused by changes in hormone levels. There may be one or more causes for the hormone level changes.
    PCOS seems to run in families, so your chance of having it is higher if other women in your family have PCOS, irregular periods, or diabetes. PCOS can be passed down from either your mother's or father's side.
    Treatment for PCOS –
    PCOS can be treated depending on the patient’s condition
    Because there is no cure for PCOS, it needs to be managed to prevent problems. Treatment goals are based on your symptoms, whether or not you want to become pregnant and lowering your chances of getting heart disease and diabetes. Many women will need a combination of treatments to meet these goals.

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