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Vins Bioproducts Limited

Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana

| GST  36AABCV0226F1ZR

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Our product range includes a wide range of Snake Venom Antiserum (African), Scorpion Venom Antiserum, Tetanus Antitoxin, Diphtheria Antitoxin, Anti Rabies Serum and Rabies Antiserum.

Snake Venom Antiserum (African)
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Description 
Snake Venom Antiserum (African) is a sterile preparation contains equine immunoglobulin fragments F(ab’)2. Freeze dried powder is reconstituted in 10 ml of sterile water for Injection supplied along with the vial. Each ml has power of specifically neutralizing the venoms of following species of snakes.

Administration / Dosage
Reconstituted serum / liquid serum is administered as soon as possible after the snake bite by intravenous injection. The recommended initial dose is 20 ml by intravenous infusion. The injection should be given very slowly as 5 minutes by direct slow intravenous route (or) one hour by Infusion, diluted in 250 ml of infusion solution (0.9% Sodium Chloride solution or 5% glucose solution). A second dose may be given after one hour or two if the symptoms continue. Further doses are administered as required.

Snake Poisoning & Serum Treatment
In case of neurotoxic (Naja and Dendroaspis) poisoning there is creeping paralysis of muscles of eyelids, staggering gait, incoordination of speech, paralysis of limbs, drooping of head accompanied by nausea and vomiting. These symptoms are due to the predominance of neurotoxins. Death may result within minutes or several hours due to respiratory failure

Serum Reactions
Before treating the patient, it should be enquired whether any serum injection was administered earlier and whether the patient has a history of asthma, eczema or drug allergy. Serum sensitivity test may be carried out by injecting 0.1 ml of serum in 1:10 dilution subcutaneously and by observing for half an hour for any reactions either local or general.

Delayed Reactions
Serum sickness like reactions after the administration of heterologous proteins may occur about six days after the beginning of treatment. They consist of an inflammatory reaction due to complement activation and formation of immune complexes (type III hypersensitivity reaction). Clinical symptoms are fever, pruritus, rash or urticaria, adenopathy and arthralgia. Serum sickness is treated by administering (eg. 1 mg/kg of methylprednisolone followed by diminishing dosage) and antihistamines.

Associated treatment
analgesics will relieve pain and nervousness in case of viper poisoning. Cortico steroids may be administered to minimize the serum and allergic reactions. Local sepsis may be prevented by treatment. Normal saline or plasma infusions are recommended in near collapsing patients. In case of respiratory paralysis tracheotomy and positive pressure ventilation are ad ditional measures.

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Scorpion Venom Antiserum
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Scorpion Venom Antiserum

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Description
Polyvalent anti-scorpion venom serum is prepared from the purified plasma of healthy horses, which have been hyperimmunized against venom of the most dangerous scorpions mentioned below. The antivenin is purified by pepsin degestion, controlled heating and precipitation by caprylic acid followed by sterilization

Clinical Pharmacology
Venom from a single scorpion may contain several neurotoxins such as histamine, serotonin and enzymes. The most important clinical effects of envenomation are neuromuscular, neuroautonomic or local tissue effects.

Clinical Pharmacology
Venom from a single scorpion may contain several neurotoxins such as histamine, serotonin and enzymes. The most important clinical effects of envenomation are neuromuscular, neuroautonomic or local tissue effects.

Precautions
Intradermal skin test should be done before giving antiscorpion venom serum: Inject 0.1-0.2 ml of (1:10 dilution) antivenom intradermally. In case of past history of allergy (1:100) dilution should be used. Positive skin test is in the form of a sheal with or without surrounding erythema within 30 minutes. Some studies showed that using low dose of subcutaneous of parallel infusion of hydrocortisone and antihistamine can reduce adverse reactions, which may occur with the antivenom. Safety of the product during pregnancy and lactation has not been established; therefore benefit of using the product should be outweighed against the harm. There are no reported drug interactions with the antiscorpion serum. The antivenom should not be used if turbid, expired or showing precipitation

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Tetanus Antitoxin
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Tetanus Antitoxin

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Reconstitution of Lyophilised Serum
The lyophilized Tetanus antitoxin is supplied in freeze dried form in glass vial along with 1 ml of sterile water of injection I.P. Draw 1 ml of Sterile Water for injection in a sterile syringe and transfer to lyophilized serum vial and shake gently till the content dissolve. The reconstituted serum is clear and colourless to pale yellow and ready for injection.

Administration
Tetanus antitoxin is given prophylactic ally to persons at the risk of tetanus infection by infected wounds or severe wounds. A dose of 1500 IU should be given intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the dose may doubled or trebled in case multiple and severe wounds. Prophylactic dose is also given in surgical operations as post operative care.

Indications
Tetanus antitoxin neutralizes the toxin produced by Clostridium tetani; the toxin has high affinity for new cells and antitoxin is unlikely to have an effect on toxin that is no longer circulating. Tetanus antitoxins have been used to provide temporary passive immunity against tetanus but tetanus immunoglobulins are preferred (Reynolds, 1990; McEvoy et al. 1988). Human globulin offers the advantage of greater protection, a lower risk of adverse effects and requires only one-tenth of the dosage compared to antitoxin of animal.

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Diphtheria Antitoxin
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Diphtheria Antitoxin

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Use in Prophylaxis
The use of Diphtheria Antitoxin is not recommended for prophylaxis as its protective effect is of short duration (1 to 2 weeks only) and furthermore, it may cause sensitization to horse sera. Instead, the contacts of Diphtheria patients should receive a dose (0.5 ml) of diphtheria vaccine (Diphtheria vaccine, Adsorbed PTAP) or adsorbed diphtheria- tetanus vaccine (D-T Vaccine, which protects against both diphtheria and tetanus.) and followed after 1 to 2 months with a second dose. Prophylaxis with diphtheria vaccine is gives protection for many years and is practically free from reaction..

Use in Treatment
A dose of 10000 IU to 30000 IU of diphtheria antitoxin may be injected intramuscularly in mild to severe cases of diphtheria and upto 100000 IU in severe cases after testing serum sensitivity(see below for reactions to horse serum). In addition and may be administered. It is advised that after recovery from diphtheria, patients should be actively immunized for long term protection by the use of two doses at interval of 1 to 2 months with adsorbed diphtheria vaccine or with adsorbed diphtheria-tetanus vaccine.

Reactions to Horse serum
Injection of diphtheria antitoxin in horse serum sensitive individuals can produce immediate reaction of acute anaphylaxis which could sometimes be fatal unless immediately countered by injecting 1 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline intramuscularly. Every care should be taken to prevent this reaction. Before injection of diphtheria antitoxin, it is necessary to enquire from the patient: (1) whether he/she has had injections of any serum before, (2) whether there is personal or family history of allergy i.e. asthma, eczema or drug allergy. The sensitivity of the patient to the serum is tested by injecting subcutaneously 0.1 ml of diphtheria antitoxin diluted 1:10 and the patient is observed for 30 minutes for local and general reactions. If the test dose shows either local reaction such as wheal and flare or general anaphylactic reaction such as pallor, sweating, nausea, vomiting, urticaria or fall of blood pressure, these should be treated with 1 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline (which should be always be kept handy) before injecting the main dose of diphtheria antitoxin. Half the dose of adrenaline may be repeated 15 minutes later if necessary

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Anti Rabies Serum
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Anti Rabies Serum

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Description
Rabies antiserum is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution for intra-muscular administration, containing antiviral substances obtained from the blood serum of healthy equines that have been immunized against rabies by vaccination. In addition, it also contains the anti-microbial agent cresol.

Therapeutic Indications
Rabies antiserum provides passive immunization against rabies for prevention of rabies in patients at risk of being exposed to rabies after contact with a rabid animal or an animal presumed to be rabid. Anti rabies serum itself does not constitute an anti rabies treatment and should always be used in conjunction with rabies vaccine.

Special Warnings and Precautions for Use
Despite the high degree of purification of the serum, it is recommended to perform a skin test before administering Rabies antiserum. The skin test consists of an intra-dermal injection with a 1:10 dilution of Rabies antiserum (0.1 ml) on the outside of the forearm so as to obtain an orange ring type appearance (3 mm diameter induration). An equivalent intra-dermal injection of physiological saline solution is used as control. The observations made 15 minutes after intra-dermal injection is considered to be positive if erythema (>6 mm), local oedema or a systemic reaction is observed and the control shows no such dermal reaction. Purified equine rabies immunoglobulin (the active constituent of rabies immunoserum) has been reported to be safe and affordable alternative to human rabies immunoglobulin. (Bulletin WHO 1989, 67(731-732). A positive test result is not a formal contra-indication for the use of sero-therapy, but it should be considered as a warning. In such cases Rabies antiserum should be administered only after ensuring the facility to overcome the anaphylactic shock. A negative test is not an absolute guarantee for the absence of an immediate allergic type reaction.

Pregnancy and Lactation
The safety of rabies immunoserum when used during pregnancy has not been established in clinical trials in human beings. Considering the lethal risk associated with rabies, pregnancy may not a contraindication to the administration of rabies immunoserum subsequent to exposure.

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