Designing is a creative pursuit and thus cannot be hurried in any way or form. Thus dedicated Website Designers are proven answers if you want a website that satisfies your every demand and requirement.
Dedication is the precursor to an honest effort, which ultimately leads to success. This scenario is true for any field, also Web Designing. You don't really have to look far if you want to know the benefits of hiring dedicated Web Designers. Just imagine, a Web Designer, who only works on your project that is - the creation of your website. The designer is totally committed to your project and has no other professional responsibility other than your project.
In today's times, an effective web presence is the key to business growth. No longer do simple, one dimensional websites suffice; a contemporary website is complex, multi-dimensional and interactive in nature. Professional Web Designers require loads of time for research, design, and ample time to test their website, in order to give the best website to their clients. If you hire a designer dedicated to a single project then there is every chance that all the aspects mentioned above will be given due time and attention.
One of the more important benefits of hiring dedicated Web Designing experts is that they are in complete control of the project. There is no delegation of responsibility and the designer is in charge. Moreover, as a client, even you will have control over the designing of the website. You can continuously check whether your requirements are being adhered to or not. If you don't like something, you can change it. As simple as that! However, this is only possible if your Web Designer is dedicated to your project.
If you are a company, which wants to outsource your projects to India and are looking to hire Web Designers from India, to work on your website, then you might find that dedicated designers are not as expensive as you thought they would be. Moreover, the focused service that you get is itself worth the price that you will pay for it. Most Indian companies are willing to negotiate their price with their clients if they are offering a dedicated service. Many a times, customers are surprised that the price quoted by a Web Design company, India for a dedicated Web Designer is much cheaper compared to what the cost of the whole project would be, if they got it done, in-house.
Make Your Website Noticeable
Be Professional - Look Professional Today the mantra is to become professional in your approach and looks as well. No one likes looking at a boring and dull site or a site which looks like a Web Designing power point presentation. Be creative while designing. Make sure your site is informative, appealing and well designed. Use special effect but limit yourself while using Flash. It can be an instant eye catcher but it makes your site heavy making it slow to load, which might irritate your visitor.
Search Engine Optimization
When your business tool is a website you can't expect advertising only in business cards or newspapers. You need to submit your website in all possible major search engines. Your visitors will come through search engines. Search engines are the online registration site which provides your visitors your address and other information. Search engines like spiders pick words and information from your website indexing it in its database. This database is searched by millions of visitors all over the globe everyday.
Link exchange is the fast and easy way to make your site visible to your target audience. Find websites having similar content and exchange links with them. Create your banner and place them in other websites and provide them the same. This is a smart give and take process where you give them visitors in return they do that for you Advertise To get noticed you have to be ubiquitous in media. This should involve print advertisements, TVC (Television Commercials) and online advertisements. Write press releases and organize press meets to announce your product and latest services, this gives you an offline presence.
People will visit your site when they will relate to you and this relation building can be done through media
Interact and take feedback
Be interactive with your visitors. Create message boards and forums in your website where your visitors can interact freely. Have chat rooms and other online chat services where your visitors can directly interact with you. Send newsletter and feedback forms, these methods make you more credible and help your visitors to get back to you easily.Read More
How to Increase Web Navigation ?
Use Conventional Icons and Terms
Don't try to be over creative while providing directions in your website. There are few conventional terms and icons which should be used to give your customer ease of use. For example if you have a shopping site and in place of order you put ambiguous words it might not be deciphered by your customer and he might leave from your site without giving you even a second chance. Be careful while using terms and icons in your website.
Be explicit while giving links and other terms. But don't over explain either. If you will give a two lines link then the customer might get confused. Instead, clarify the meaning with a description. Have a Structure Reveal your website structure in your navigation toolbar. If your toolbar reveals the content of the entire site then it seems to have focused content. But you need to be specific while designing navigation toolbar because it should be designed according to the site type. Navigation toolbars are best suitable for web applications serving diverse user needs and preferences. A well designed navigation toolbar provides simple, fast, organized navigation.
Breadcrumb links are the best method to provide your visitors an easy way to find their way back up to any higher level. If your site doesn't have a navigation toolbar then you can have breadcrumb links. Breadcrumb is the horizontal series of text links connecting to all locations. These links help users to find all the pages they have visited.
Don't conceal information
Your pages should not have separated by more than three clicks. All the pertinent pages should come one after another in a row. This gives your visitor more time to read every page carefully. You can also provide shortcuts through site maps, table of contents and menus.
Avoid Irrelevant links
Time is precious and if your visitor is spending time in your website then let them feel they haven't wasted their time. Screen space is very important and precious, use it wisely. If you clutter with all the irrelevant links in your website it will not only look unorganized but also least desired by your visitors. Have all the pertinent links in your website, which can be utilized by your potential visitors.
Don't be mysterious
Be clear in your approach. Don't put ambiguous graphic while having navigation toolbar. Being mysterious doesn't make visitors curious for your website but it might easily irritate them Provide Help Many websites provide search tool to help users navigate. It becomes essential for large websites with many pages to have well designed search tool. A search tool can give your customer all the assistance they need to know about your site. It provides every hint to your visitor. If you can adeptly assist your visitor then they become familiar with your site and will love to visit your site time and again.Read More
Color Balance For Your Website ?
The Color Wheel
Colors are generally interpreted in one of three modes RGB (Red Green Blue), CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow Black) and HSV (Hue Saturation Value). Each color mode is used in a specific manner but for HTML it is always best to use RGB mode. This is the widely used HTML color mode. Colors are mostly represented in a color wheel. Color wheel shows the basic colors each wheel representing a different shade of color, which are basically the same. Color wheel is used by painters and artists to mix different shades of color.
Color harmony represents the colors which go together well. These are the colors that are abreast to each other on the color wheel. Colors which compliment each other are usually colors which are featured opposite on the color wheel. Colors convey several messages; they can provoke your emotions and can also satiate your requirements. Colors like blue, black, dark green and brown seem to fall back. Bright colors like yellow, white, red and orange seem step forward. That's why an orange background kills the gist of the content doesn't matter what text color you have used.
Now that you have the basic understanding of color wheel, let's look at the different color combinations. You need to coordinate with all your colors to make your website lively and interactive. Generally you can combine colors in five different categories mentioned below:
Warm Colors: These are the colors starting from red-violet to yellow on the color wheel Cool Colors: Colors ranging from violet to green-yellow on the color wheel Complementary Colors: These are the colors which are exactly opposite in the color wheel Monochromatic Colors: This combines all the hues of one color segment on the color wheel.
In designing a website it's important to know what your colors mean. You can now understand why a dark back ground with dark text annoys the visitor, because these colors fall back and disinterest your visitors. So include enough color research before designing your website. Your website should not convey a wrong message to your visitor. Make sure every color you chose compliments your corporate identity.
Zend Framework ?
ZF's use-at-will architecture allows developers to reuse components when and where they make sense in their applications without requiring other ZF components beyond minimal dependencies. There is therefore no single development paradigm or pattern that all Zend Framework users must follow, although ZF does provide components for the MVC and Table Gateway design patterns which are used in most ZF applications.
Zend Framework provides individual components for many other common requirements in web application development, including authentication and authorization via access control lists (ACL), application configuration, data caching, filtering/validation of user-provided data for security and data integrity, internationalization, interfaces to AJAX functionality, email composition/delivery, Lucene-format search indexing and querying, and all Google Data APIs along with many other popular web services. Because of their loosely coupled design, ZF components can be used relatively easily alongside components from other
History and philosophy
Zend Framework was conceived in early 2005 while many new frameworks, such as Ruby on Rails and the Spring Framework, were gaining popularity in the web development community. ZF was publicly announced at the first Zend Conference. At the same time, no widely used framework had been made available to the PHP community to fulfill similar web development needs.
Typically, specific development usage scenarios are implemented using more generalized software components through automatic configuration and/or code generation. In previous releases, the Zend Framework community has opted to complete development and testing of these underlying components before starting work on simplifying development tasks such as database migrations, generating scaffolding, and project creation and configuration. This practice has been the subject of some criticism since some functionality considered by many as necessary for a general release for modern web application frameworks is slated for future Zend Framework releases. Many ZF users, however, have found such generalized software components more reusable and extensible in implementing their applications. Zend Framework also seeks to promote web development best practices in the PHP community; conventions are not as commonly used in ZF as in many other frameworks, rather suggestions are put forth by setting reasonable defaults that can be overridden for each ZF application's specific requirements.
Zend Framework requires PHP 5.2.4 or later since version 1.7.0. Previous versions required PHP 5.1.4 or later, although the ZF Programmer's Reference Guide strongly recommended PHP 5.2.3 or later for security and performance improvements included in these versions of PHP. PHPUnit 3.0 or later is required to run the unit tests shipped with Zend Framework. Many components also require PHP extensions.
All components are fully object-oriented PHP 5 and are E_STRICT compliant
Use-at-will architecture with loosely coupled components and minimal interdependencies
Extensible MVC implementation supporting layouts and PHP-based templates by default
Support for multiple database systems and vendors, including MySQL, Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, SQLite, and Informix
Liquid versus fixed layouts ?
Some designers choose to control the appearance of the elements on the screen by using specific width designations. This control may be achieved through the use of a HTML table-based design or a more semantic div-based design through the use of CSS. Whenever the text, images, and layout of a design do not change as the browser changes, this is referred to as a fixed width design. Proponents of fixed width design prefer precise control over the layout of a site and the precision placement of objects on the page. Other designers choose a liquid design. A liquid design is one where the design moves to flow content into the whole screen, or a portion of the screen, no matter what the size of the browser window. Proponents of liquid design prefer greater compatibility and using the screen space available. Liquid design can be achieved by setting the width of text blocks and page modules to a percentage of the page, or by avoiding specifying the width for these elements all together, allowing them to expand or contract naturally in accordance with the width of the browser.
Both liquid and fixed design developers must make decisions about how the design should degrade on higher and lower screen resolutions. Sometimes the pragmatic choice is made to flow the design between a minimum and a maximum width. This allows the designer to avoid coding for the browser choices making up The Long Tail, while still using all available screen space. Depending on the purpose of the content, a Web Designer may decide to use either fixed or liquid layouts on a case-by-case basis.
Similar to liquid layout is the optional fit to window feature with Adobe Flash content. This is a fixed layout that optimally scales the content of the page without changing the arrangement or text wrapping when the browser is resized.
Ruby on Rails
These are the giants who have spent millions on advertising to become a household name.
But how do your recall these companies? Indubitably you remember them because of their products or services. Then sure enough these aren't the most popular websites as many of you haven't visited their website yet. What comes to your mind when you think of most successful websites?
Undoubtedly they are Google, Yahoo, Hotmail or Amazon etc.
These are the websites which are most widely searched and used. These virtual giants have become the most successful websites. They provide you both products and services online, which makes them the most desired websites. Ironically today the biggest shopping site is not Walmart.com but Amazon.com. This shows how the web has spread in our household. Let us be little retrospective about this question that why most successful websites are not launched by the most successful companies?
Time and tide wait for none
In many corporations' websites you will find a little about there company and its product details. Almost all of them strive to make their website look beautiful and appealing. For this, these companies put heavy graphics in their website, which takes ages to load making the visitor annoyed and irritated. Hence the bottom-line should be that, you should not compromise your visitor's patience in order to get a cool and stunning website.
The problem with the big consumer corporations' is that they spend too much on their advertisements to get a market presence but often deprive their websites. So the websites look mere presentations with heavy effects than an informative company site, which always turn out annoying than attractive. Visitors find it most irritating when they are too crowded by special effects. Following are the few special effects which shouldn't be overdone in any website.
What will you do if your site lacks content? Certainly you can put images and special effects to make your site look good and active. If your site has heavy Flash with less text then it shows it lacks content. This is what happens with many corporate websites. When they don't put content in their website they adorn it with Flash and other special effects. Flash can be used as a content enhancer, where you can make your content more readable and stylish. But more often it's been used to impress.
Splash Screen is a widely used special effect featured in various websites. Splash pages make their visitors wait for redirecting them to any link. This can be an exasperating process for visitors. Many business websites feature a splash screen which not only takes time to load but also redirects the visitor without any warning. The lesson by far is not to compromise usability with looks of your website and never forget why the user came to your site first rather than going to your competitor.
Content Management System (CMS)
If you have a website then you need to update it regularly so that your visitors find it interesting. Stagnant websites are like stale food making every one disinterested to even see. But it will need a lot of money if you plan to update your site by web developers every week. Hence you can have a mid way for this. A CMS can help you update your website allowing you to edit or modify the content in your website. You can save money and time by using CMS. Through CMS, you can update your content as often as you want. With constant updating your site will look more interactive and appealing. If you plan to update your content then it is a good idea to have a CMS.
Key Features of CMS
Many CMS' have different features. It is not essential that every CMS will have similar features. The basic feature of CMS is to edit the content of the website. Many CMS' have features like access rights management and content approval, dynamic site maps, e-mail alerts, dual or multilingual functionality, form creation and management, standard and accessibility compliance, Meta tag updating, site security, image optimization and processing, versioning, static report and search functionality.
How to get CMS?
Many web deigning companies offer CMS along with other services. CMS pricing depends on the number of pages and users involved in it. You can get varieties of CMS offered by different companies. Make sure you do a thorough market research before spending big bucks on CMS. You can also consult software companies for better advice.
Python (programming language) ?
Python's core syntax and semantics are minimalistic, while the standard library is large and comprehensive. Its use of whitespace as block delimiters is unusual among popular programming languages.
Python supports multiple programming paradigms (primarily object oriented, imperative, and functional) and features a fully dynamic type system and automatic memory management, similar to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, and Tcl. Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language.
Python was first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. The language has an open, community-based development model managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation, which also maintains the de facto standard definition of the language in CPython, the reference implementation.
Python was conceived in the late 1980s by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC programming language capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. Van Rossum is Python's principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given him by the Python community
Python reached version 1.0 in January 1994. The major new features included in this release were the functional programming tools lambda, map, filter and reduce. Van Rossum stated that "Python acquired lambda, reduce(), filter() and map(), courtesy of (I believe) a Lisp hacker who missed them and submitted working patches."
The last version released while van Rossum was at CWI was Python 1.2. In 1995, Van Rossum continued his work on Python at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) in Reston, Virginia from where he released several versions.
By version 1.4, Python had acquired several new features. Notable among these are the Modula-3 inspired keyword arguments (which are also similar to Common Lisp's keyword arguments), and built-in support for complex numbers. Also included is a basic form of data hiding by name mangling, though this is easily bypassed.
During Van Rossum's stay at CNRI, he launched the Computer Programming for Everybody (CP4E) initiative, intending to make programming more accessible to more people, with a basic 'literacy' in programming languages, similar to the basic English literacy and mathematics skills required by most employers. Python served a central role in this: because of its focus on clean syntax, it was already suitable, and CP4E's goals bore similarities to its predecessor, ABC. The project was funded by DARPA. As of 2007[update], the CP4E project is inactive, and while Python attempts to be easily learnable and not too arcane in its syntax and semantics, reaching out to non-programmers is not an active concern.
The relationship between SEO and the search engines
Due to the high value and targeting of search results, there is potential for an adversarial relationship between search engines and SEOs. In 2005, an annual conference named AirWeb was created to discuss bridging the gap and minimizing the sometimes damaging effects of aggressive web content providers
Some more aggressive site owners and SEOs generate automated sites or employ techniques that eventually get domains banned from the search engines. Many search engine optimization companies, which sell services, employ long-term, low-risk strategies, and most SEO firms that do employ high-risk strategies do so on their own affiliate, lead-generation, or content sites, instead of risking client websites.
Some SEO companies employ aggressive techniques that get their client websites banned from the search results. The Wall Street Journal profiled a company that allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients. Wired reported the same company sued a blogger for mentioning that they were banned. Google's Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.
Google has enforced webpage restrictions for years, such as for hidden-text (background and foreground colors the same hue); in 2006, Google could punish a non-standard website by blocking search-results, automatically, the next day for 30-35 days (or longer), pending a reinclusion request, and if reinstated, revert the index to old/expired/deleted webpages from a year earlier, delaying the re-indexing of the current website for a total of 2-4 months.
Yahoo! and MSN Search do not automatically punish entire websites for small amounts of accidental hidden text. Google's market share of daily searches has fallen rapidly from 75% to 56% over the past few years, as other search engines find many valuable webpages that Google has banned and cannot display due to Google's severely limited index. In early 2006, MSN Search typically re-indexed small websites every 14 days, and Yahoo! also re-indexed quickly, much faster than Google, but all three MSN/Yahoo!/Google could require more than a month to index a new page (new file name) on an old website.
Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry, and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences and seminars. In fact, with the advent of paid inclusion, some search engines now have a vested interest in the health of the optimization community. All of the main search engines provide information/guidelines to help with site optimization: Google's, Yahoo!'s, MSN's and Ask.com's. Google has a Sitemaps program to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website. Yahoo! has SiteExplorer that provides a way to submit your URLs for free (like MSN/Google), determine how many pages are in the Yahoo! index and drill down on inlinks to deep pages. Yahoo! has an Ambassador Program and Google has a program for qualifying Google Advertising Professionals.
Getting into search engines' listings
Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site, and many pages from a site may not be indexed by the search engines until they gain more pagerank or links or traffic. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled, as well as other importance metrics. Cho et al. (Cho et al., 1998) described some standards for those decisons as to which pages are visited and sent by a crawler to be included in a search engine's index.
Webmasters can instruct spiders to not index certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Standard practice requires a search engine to check this file upon visiting the domain, though a search engine crawler will keep a cached copy of this file as it visits the pages of a site, and may not update that copy as quickly as a webmaster does. The web developer can use this feature to prevent pages such as shopping carts or other dynamic, user-specific content from appearing in search engine results, as well as keeping spiders from endless loops and other spider traps.
For those search engines who have their own paid submission (like Yahoo!), it may save some time to pay a nominal fee for submission. Yahoo!'s paid submission program guarantees inclusion in their search results, but does not guarantee specific ranking within the search results.
White Hat Methods
Because search engines are text-centric, many of the same methods that are useful for web accessibility are also advantageous for SEO. A detailed case for this common ground, cited by the W3C with respect to Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case, is SEO A Positive Influence on Web Accessibility. Google has brought the relationship between SEO and accessibility even closer with the release of Google Accessible Web Search which prioritises accessible websites.
Methods are available for optimizing graphical content, including ALT attributes, and adding a text caption. Even Flash animations can be optimized by designing the page to include alternative content in case the visitor cannot read Flash.
Some methods considered proper by the search engines:
Using unique and relevant title to name each page.
Editing web pages to replace vague wording with specific terminology relevant to the subject of the page, and that the audiences that the site was developed for will expect to see on the pages, and will search with to find the page.
Increasing the amount of unique content on the site.
Writing quality content for the website visitors instead of the search engines.
Using a reasonably-sized, accurate description meta tag without excessive use of keywords, exclamation marks or off topic terms.
Allowing search engine spiders to crawl pages without having to accept session IDs or cookies.
Developing "link bait" strategies. High quality websites that offer interesting content or novel features tend to accumulate large numbers of backlinks.
Participating in a web ring with other quality websites.
Writing useful, informational articles under a Creative Commons or other open source license, in exchange for attribution to the author by hyperlink.
Black Hat Methods
Spamdexing is the promotion of irrelevant, chiefly commercial, pages through deceptive techniques and the abuse of the search algorithms. Over time a widespread consensus has developed in the industry as to what are and are not acceptable means of boosting one's search engine placement and resultant traffic.
Spamdexing often gets confused with white hat search engine optimization techniques, which do not involve deceit. Spamming involves getting websites more exposure than they deserve for their keywords, leading to unsatisfactory search results. Optimization involves getting websites the rank they deserve on the most targeted keywords, leading to satisfactory search experiences.
When discovered, search engines may take action against those found to be using unethical SEO methods. In February 2006, Google removed both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of these practices.
Cloaking is the practice of serving one version of a page to search engine spiders/bots and another version to human visitors.
SEO and Marketing
SEOs may work in-house for an organization, or as consultants, and search engine optimization may be only part of their daily functions. Often their education of how search engines function come from interacting and discussing the topics on forums, through blogs, at popular conferences and seminars, and by experimentation on their own sites. There are few college courses that cover online marketing from an ecommerce perspective that can keep up with the changes that the web sees on a daily basis.
While endeavoring to meet the guidelines posted by search engines can help build a solid foundation for success on the web, such efforts are only a start. Many see search engine marketing as a larger umbrella under which search engine optimization fits, but it's possible that many who focused primarily on SEO in the past are incorporating more and more marketing ideas into their efforts, including public relations strategy and implementation, online display media buying, web site transition SEO, web trends data anaylsis, HTML E-mail campaigns, and business blog consulting making SEO firms more like an ad agency.
Link Building Basics
This is by far the oldest and best-known method of improving link popularity.
Basically you email or contact the Webmaster of a site that is complementary but generally not competitive to your own. You ask them to link to your site while outlining the benefits of doing so. You would generally offer to link back to them in exchange for this courtesy. Be sure you have developed genuine content on your Web site of interest to the trading partner. Explain the advantages to them and to their visitors by providing a link to your content. Tell them where the link on your site will be or set the link up in advance with the stipulation that you'll be glad to leave it there if they'll add a link to you in kind. Take the time to look over their site and then suggest where a link to you might be appropriate. Most importantly, personalize your emails! You must distinguish yourself from all the spam they receive daily. If the link is particularly important to you, call them personally or write them a letter or send a fax to show them you're serious. (Brent Winters of First Place Software) Here's the simple means to find those good links. Go to the major search engines.
Search for your target keywords. Look at the pages that appear in the top results.
Now visit those pages and ask the site owners if they will link to you. Not everyone will, especially sites that are extremely competitive with you. However, there will be non-competitive sites that will link to you -- especially if you offer to link back.
Why is this system good? By searching for your target keywords, you'll find the pages that the search engines themselves are telling you are good, as evidenced by the fact that they rank well. Hence, links from these pages are more important -- and important for the terms you are interested in -- than links from other pages.
When asking for a link:
ALWAYS have a link already put on your own site BEFORE you ask for a link in return and give the location of the link. It's harder to say no if you can provide the URL of where their link is.
ALWAYS give them the exact link text to use, even going so far as to put it in HTML so they can just cut/paste it onto their page.
MAKE SURE they actually have a links page!
GIVE THEM as much information as needed in order to make it easy for them to link to you. If they have a big site that's divided into sections, give them the exact URL of where your site would fit in. Then, provide the HTML for the link to your site
The largest and most profitable of software companies are located in the United States. As of 2008, the client software industry is dominated by Microsoft. Software Magazine's 500 list in 2005 shows the total amount of revenue brought in by software companies per locale, with the highest being California due to Silicon Valley and the number of Fortune 500 software companies residing in that area.
There are several types of businesses in the software industry. The largest and most profitable publish horizontal proprietary software such as Microsoft, SAP AG, Oracle Corporation, and Adobe. Others develop vertical-market software intended for a particular sector or niche in the economy such as finance, health care, insurance, retail, automotive manufacturing, and so on. A great deal of specialized software is produced for various niches. Other companies do contract programming to develop unique software for one particular client company, or focus on configuring and customizing suites from large vendors such as SAP or Oracle. And a few companies publish or support open source software. Developing proprietary software involves software licensing and the need to protect the software from cracking and piracy.
The software industry started in the early 1960s when universities and businesses first began to use computers and to seek out programs to do certain computing tasks. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers. Some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. But others were done on a commercial basis, and the very first standalone software firms started in the United States in 1959-1960.
The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer in the mid-1970s, which created a growing market for games, applications, and utilities. And gradually the concept that software should be bought and paid for took hold. One of the earliest proponents of this view was Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft.
In the early years of the 21st century, another successful business model has arisen for hosted software, called software as a service, or SaaS; this was at least the third time this model had been attempted. SaaS reduces the concerns about software piracy, since it can only be accessed through the Web, and by definition no client software is loaded onto the end user's PC.
Size of the industry
Software Magazines' Software 500 survey can be used to gauge the value of the commercial software industry. The Software 500 survey consists of data from the largest 500 public and private software companies, as ranked by Software Magazine. Total worldwide revenues in 2007 for companies in the Software 500 list were $451.8 billion, up 14.7% from 2006, when total Software 500 revenue was $394 billion.
Incremental funding methodology
IFM integrates traditional software engineering activities with financially informed project management strategies. IFM heuristics provide clarity into important metrics such as project level NPV, ROI, initial start-up investment costs, and time needed for a project to reach self-funding status. It enables developers, customers, and business stakeholders to answer critical questions related to the development and delivery of a product and to optimize strategies accordingly.
In short, IFM equips developers and project managers with techniques and principles for increasing the financial returns of a software project and for identifying development schedules that make a project financially feasible.
In systems engineering a specification is a document that clearly and accurately describes the essential technical requirements for items, materials, or services including the procedures by which it can be determined that the requirements have been met. Specifications help avoid duplication and inconsistencies, allow for accurate estimates of necessary work and resources, act as a negotiation and reference document for engineering changes, provide documentation of configuration, and allow for consistent communication among those responsible for the eight primary functions of Systems Engineering. They provide a precise idea of the problem to be solved so that they can efficiently design the system and estimate the cost of design alternatives. They provide guidance to testers for verification (qualification) of each technical requirement.
A functional specification does not define the inner workings of the proposed system; it does not include the specification how the system function will be implemented. Instead, it focuses on what various outside agents (people using the program, computer peripherals, or other computers, for example) might "observe" when interacting with the system. A typical functional specification might state the following:
When the user clicks the OK button, the dialog is closed and the focus is returned to the main window in the state it was in before this dialog was displayed.
Such a requirement describes an interaction between an external agent (the user) and the software system. When the user provides input to the system by clicking the OK button, the program responds (or should respond) by closing the dialog window containing the OK button.
It can be informal, in which case it can be considered as a blueprint or user manual from a developer point of view, or formal, in which case it has a definite meaning defined in mathematical or programmatic terms. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development. Specifications are most important for external interfaces that must remain stable.
Functional specification topics
There are many purposes for functional specifications. One of the primary purposes on team projects is to achieve some form of team consensus on what the program is to achieve before making the more time-consuming effort of writing source code and test cases, followed by a period of debugging. Typically, such consensus is reached after one or more reviews by the stakeholders on the project at hand after having negotiated a cost-effective way to achieve the requirements the software needs to fulfill.
In the ordered industrial software engineering life-cycle (waterfall model), functional specification describes what has to be implemented. The next system specification document describes how the functions will be realized using a chosen software environment. In not industrial, prototypical systems development, functional specifications are typically written after or as part of requirements analysis.
Software publishers often license software from original author-developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region for a royalty consideration. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret.
The author-developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid having to focus on huge initial production and marketing costs. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.
Software User Experience Design
The user experience
User experience design, most often abbreviated UX, but sometimes UE, is a term used to describe the overarching experience a person has as a result of their interactions with a particular product or service, it's delivery, and related artifacts, according to their design. As with its related term, User Interface Design, prefixing "User" associates it primarily with digital media, especially interactive software. It most commonly refers to the result of a planned integration of software design, business, and psychology concerns. It can apply to the result of any interaction design. Voice User Interface (VUI) systems, for instance, are frequently mentioned as a type of user interface that can lead to a poor user experience.
For a more generalized usage, which can include reference to physical environments, see experience design.
This field has its roots in human factors and ergonomics, a field that since the late 1940s has been focusing on the interaction between human users, machines and the contextual environments to design systems that address the user's experience. The term also has a more recent connection to user-centered design principles and also incorporates elements from similar user-centered design fields:
Human computer interaction
User interface design
As with the fields mentioned above, user experience design is a highly multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of psychology, anthropology, computer science, graphic design, industrial design and cognitive science. Depending on the purpose of the product, UX may also involve content design disciplines such as communication design, instructional design, or game design. The subject matter of the content may also warrant collaboration with a Subject Matter Expert (SME) on planning the UX from various backgrounds in business, government, or private groups.
User experience design incorporates most or all of the above disciplines to positively impact the overall user experience a person has with a particular interactive system, and it's provider. User experience design most frequently defines a sequence of interactions between a user (individual person) and a system, designed to meet or support user needs and goals, primarily, while also satisfying systems requirements and organizational objectives.
They can be either official distributions by the makers of the software, or 3rd party distributions. Notable is the fact that one using such 3rd party distributions will have to turn to the distribution maker for support, the developers of the actual software being distributed usually do not provide support for 3rd party distributions of their software.
Software Development Process
A largely growing body of software development organizations implement process methodologies. Many of them are in the defense industry, which in the U.S. requires a rating based on 'process models' to obtain contracts.
The international standard for describing the method of selecting, implementing and monitoring the life cycle for software is ISO 12207.
A decades-long goal has been to find repeatable, predictable processes that improve productivity and quality. Some try to systematize or formalize the seemingly unruly task of writing software. Others apply project management techniques to writing software. Without project management, software projects can easily be delivered late or over budget. With large numbers of software projects not meeting their expectations in terms of functionality, cost, or delivery schedule, effective project management appears to be lacking.
Organizations may create a Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG), which is the focal point for process improvement. Composed of line practitioners who have varied skills, the group is at the center of the collaborative effort of everyone in the organization who is involved with software engineering process improvement.
Software development activities
The most important task in creating a software product is extracting the requirements or requirements analysis. Customers typically have an abstract idea of what they want as an end result, but not what software should do. Incomplete, ambiguous, or even contradictory requirements are recognized by skilled and experienced software engineers at this point. Frequently demonstrating live code may help reduce the risk that the requirements are incorrect. One specific method here is Software Elements Analysis.
Once the general requirements are gleaned from the client, an analysis of the scope of the development should be determined and clearly stated. This is often called a scope document. Certain functionality may be out of scope of the project as a function of cost or as a result of unclear requirements at the start of development. If the development is done externally, this document can be considered a legal document so that if there are ever disputes, any ambiguity of what was promised to the client can be clarified.
Domain Analysis is often the first step in attempting to design a new piece of software, whether it be an addition to an existing software, a new application, a new subsystem or a whole new system. Assuming that the developers (including the analysts) are not sufficiently knowledgeable in the subject area of the new software, the first task is to investigate the so-called "domain" of the software. The more knowledgeable they are about the domain already, the less work required. Another objective of this work is to make the analysts, who will later try to elicit and gather the requirements from the area experts, speak with them in the domain's own terminology, facilitating a better understanding of what is being said by these experts. If the analyst does not use the proper terminology it is likely that they will not be taken seriously, thus this phase is an important prelude to extracting and gathering the requirements. If an analyst hasn't done the appropriate work confusion may ensue: "I know you believe you understood what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize what you heard is not what I meant."
Multimedia Rules the World
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is similar to traditional mixed media in fine art, but with a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses without any navigation control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear content offers user interactivity to control progress as used with a computer game or used in self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content. Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.
Multimedia presentations may be viewed in person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.
Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator. The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience.